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The Complexities of Co-Owning a Vacation Home

The Complexities of Co-Owning a Vacation Home

Dreaming of a vacation home you can escape to at any moment is wonderful. However, the reality of co-owning that slice of paradise with friends or family might be more complicated than you think, explains Better Homes and Garden’s article, “What You Need to Know Before You Buy a Vacation Home with Friends or Family.” Let’s dive into the complexities and considerations of co-owning a vacation home, inspired by insights from experts in the field.

Co-owning a vacation home often starts with a dream shared among friends or family. It’s an appealing idea, especially when the cost of owning a vacation spot on your own seems out of reach. The idea of pooling resources to afford a better, more luxurious property in a prime location is tempting. It promises a place to stay and a shared investment, potentially increasing in value over time.

The main attraction of co-owning is financial efficiency. You can access better properties in desirable locations without shouldering the entire financial burden alone. It allows more frequent visits to your favorite vacation spot and turns an otherwise unreachable dream into a tangible reality. Owning a property with others can also create deeper bonds and shared memories that last a lifetime.

However, with the benefits come significant risks and potential pitfalls. Co-ownership can lead to financial disputes, disagreements over property use, maintenance responsibilities and even conflicts about the property’s future. What happens if one owner wants out of their part of the property or if one owner passes away unexpectedly? What if personal circumstances change, affecting

Before jumping into co-ownership, having detailed conversations about every aspect of the property’s future is crucial. Discussing and agreeing on a budget, usage schedules, guests, pets and even decor can prevent misunderstandings down the line. It’s also wise to consider legal structures, like becoming tenants in common or forming an LLC, to manage the property, ensuring that all agreements are in writing to protect everyone involved.

Getting legal advice from an estate, real estate, or business attorney when considering purchasing joint-owned property is essential. A trusted attorney can help draft a comprehensive co-ownership contract with your friend or family member that outlines each owner’s rights, responsibilities, financial commitments and the procedures for resolving disputes or selling shares in the property. This agreement safeguards your financial interest in the vacation home, ensuring that it remains a source of joy rather than a cause of strife.

Co-owning a vacation home offers a unique opportunity to make your dream of a getaway spot a reality. However, it’s not without its challenges. By prioritizing open communication, financial clarity and professional legal advice, you can navigate the complexities of co-ownership. Remember, the goal is to create a space that enhances your life and relationships, not one that leads to unnecessary stress or conflict. Your estate planning attorney will help you fully grasp the complexities of co-owning a vacation home. If you are interested in learning more about managing real property in your estate plan, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Better Homes and Gardens (June 29, 2023) “What You Need to Know Before You Buy a Vacation Home with Friends or Family”

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IRS may End Irrevocable Trust Decanting

IRS may End Irrevocable Trust Decanting

The term “irrevocable trust” is not quite what it seems, says a recent article from The National Law Review, “Is CCA 202352018 the Death of Irrevocable Trust Decantings?”  Generally, they can be modified in one or two ways, depending on the state’s laws. In some states, an irrevocable trust can be modified with the consent of the beneficiaries and the trustees. Some states also require the consent of the settlor if they are living. This is referred to as a “non-judicial modification. ”In other states, an irrevocable trust can be modified by a decanting, a process where an authorized trustee exercises their independent discretion to “pour” over the property of the trust to a new trust with different terms—hence the term decanting.  However, the IRS’ Chief Council Advice Memorandum (CCA 202352018) (the “CCA”) means the IRS may end irrevocable trust decantings, as they have been used for years. It’s all about the taxes.

Estate planning attorneys have been concerned that using a non-judicial modification to make changes with the beneficiaries’ consent, such as removing a beneficiary, shifting beneficial interests, or diluting a beneficiary’s interest, might be considered a taxable gift by the beneficiaries. The concern wasn’t present for decantings, since they are effectuated by the independent act of an authorized trustee, who doesn’t have a beneficial interest in the trust without the beneficiaries’ consent – until the CCA.

The CCA Memorandum reviewed a case where, in the first year, an irrevocable inter vivos trust is established for the benefit of a Child and the Child’s descendants, and the trustee may distribute income and principal for the benefit of the child according to the trustee’s discretion. When the Child dies, the remainder will be distributed to the Child’s issue per stirpes.

In year two, when the Child has no living grandchildren or remote descendants, the trustee petitions the state court to modify the terms of the trust. The Child and Child’s issue consent to the modification. Later that year, the State Court grants the petition and issues an order modifying the trust to provide a trustee of the Trust with the power to reimburse the grantor for any income taxes. The grantor pays due to the inclusion of the Trust’s income in the grantor’s taxable income.

The Chief Counsel finds the modification of the irrevocable trust with the consent of the beneficiaries may constitute a taxable gift from the beneficiaries. However, the CCA goes on to say, “[t]he result would be the same if the modification was pursuant to a state statute that provides beneficiaries with a right to notice and a right to object to the modification and a beneficiary fails to exercise their right to object.”

This additional comment from the Chief Counsel is seen as foreshadowing the IRS’ position concerning decanting, and it may prove problematic. Most states currently authorizing trust decanting by statute require the trustee to provide the beneficiaries with notice of the decanting and provide that unless the beneficiaries consent to an earlier effective date, the decanting is only effective after a period of time elapses following the beneficiaries’ receipt of the notice.

It remains to be seen whether this comment from the Chief Counsel will foreclose all possible options for decanting. Decantings are permitted by law in various states, and many estate planning attorneys include provisions in their irrevocable trusts allowing the trustee to decant the trust under the terms of the trust, using the language of an “internal decanting provision.”

Whether the IRS ends the use of irrevocable trust decantings remains to be seen. If you are exploring the possibility of modifying an irrevocable trust, it is always best to speak with an estate planning attorney to review options and possible risks. If you would like to read more about irrevocable trusts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: The National Law Review (Feb. 29, 2024) “Is CCA 202352018 the Death of Irrevocable Trust Decantings?”

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The Estate of The Union Season 3|Episode 3

The Estate of The Union Season 3|Episode 3 is out now!

The Estate of The Union Season 3|Episode 3 is out now! Taxes come in all favors. Sales taxes, excise taxes, capital gains taxes, etc. We are all concerned about our income taxes as we approach April 15th. Many of us will believe we pay way too much, and nobody will feel like they should pay more! But there’s another tax to be concerned about: The Death Tax.

 In this edition of The Estate of the Union, Brad Wiewel dissects the Death tax and it’s first cousin, the Gift Tax and explains them in a way that everyone can understand. He also sheds like on what is going to happen on January 1, 2026 – unless Congress changes the law; so, stand by!

 

In each episode of The Estate of The Union podcast, host and lawyer Brad Wiewel will give valuable insights into the confusing world of estate planning, making an often daunting subject easier to understand. It is Estate Planning Made Simple! The Estate of The Union Season 3|Episode 3 is out now! The episode can be found on Spotify, Apple podcasts, or anywhere you get your podcasts. If you would prefer to watch the video version, please visit our YouTube page. Please click on the links to listen to or watch the new installment of The Estate of The Union podcast. We hope you enjoy it.

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Texas Trust Law focuses its practice exclusively in the area of wills, probate, estate planning, asset protection, and special needs planning. Brad Wiewel is Board Certified in Estate Planning and Probate Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization. We provide estate planning services, asset protection planning, business planning, and retirement exit strategies.

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When Gift Tax Return Should Be Filed

When Gift Tax Return Should Be Filed

Gift tax returns may be the most misunderstood and overlooked part of estate planning. The first mistake people make, according to the article “Know The Most Misunderstood Part Of Estate Plans: Gift Tax Returns” from Forbes, is not knowing when a gift tax return should be filed. Even if a gift you make is tax-free, you might have to file a return anyway. And there are times when you aren’t required to file a gift tax return, but it’s still a good idea to do so.

The gift tax return is IRS Form 709, which can be downloaded from the IRS website at no cost.

In most cases, the IRS can’t take action on an incorrect gift tax return once more than three years have passed since it was originally filed. There are exceptions for fraudulent returns or if a return is either missing information or substantially misstates information.

However, there’s no statute of limitations if you fail to file a gift tax return, and the IRS can raise questions about the transaction at any time. This includes coming after your heirs or your estate after you’ve passed. At that time, your heirs or executor may not have the evidence to prove you complied with the tax law. The IRS would be within its rights to assess not only the gift tax but also penalties and interest for all the years from the date of the gift tax filing to the current date.

For this reason alone, it’s a good idea to file a gift tax return if there’s even the slightest question of whether it’s necessary.

Form 709 has a section for reporting “non-gift transactions.” Some estate planning attorneys recommend taking advantage of this to start the statute of limitations clock ticking and prevent the IRS from recharacterizing your gift years later as a taxable gift.

Consider this especially when you sell assets to a trust or shift assets from one irrevocable trust to another, known as “decanting” a trust. Consider also filing a gift tax return for a non-gift if you take advantage of the generation-skipping transfer tax exemption through a trust.

Another common mistake is not realizing that certain actions are considered gifts by the IRS, whether in the general sense or not. Let’s say you sell an asset to your children at less than market value. The difference between the selling price and the market value is a gift. So is forgiving or making a loan at a below-market interest rate.

If parents pay bills for adult children, this might be considered a gift if the gifts are valuable or if you also make significant gifts of money or property to the same person in the same year.

A gift tax issue the IRS pays close attention to is valuation. There’s not much question about the value of a publicly traded security, but for many other assets, there’s a lot of room to question the correct value, and the gift tax is based on the asset value at the time the gift is made.

While spouses may make unlimited gifts to each other tax-free, there are times when gifts between spouses must be reported. One time is when the gift is defined in the tax code as a “terminable interest.” Another time is if one spouse is not a U.S. citizen. Gifts to that spouse from the other spouse exceeding a certain amount during the year must be reported on IRS Form 709.

It’s always a good idea to check with your estate planning attorney about when a gift tax return should be filed to protect yourself and your heirs. If you would like to read more about gifting and estate planning, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Forbes (Feb. 16, 2024) “Know The Most Misunderstood Part Of Estate Plans: Gift Tax Returns”

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Crummey Trusts are an Option to Gift to Minors

Crummey Trusts are an Option to Gift to Minors

If you’re looking for ways to pass wealth on to children or grandchildren, one valuable tool to consider may be the Crummey Trust. Crummey Trusts represent a strategic option for those looking to gift assets to minors. Named after the first individual to utilize this approach, the Crummey Trust offers a way to gift money to minors while enjoying significant tax advantages and maintaining control over the funds’ distribution.

A Crummey Trust allows you to gift assets to minors without those gifts being subject to gift tax up to a certain amount annually. As of 2024, you can give up to $18,000 annually to a minor through a Crummey Trust without incurring gift tax or affecting your lifetime gift tax exemption. This type of trust is particularly appealing because it prevents the minor from gaining direct access to the funds until they reach an age where they can manage the money responsibly.

A Crummey Trust operates on the concept of “present interest” gifts. For a gift to qualify for the annual gift tax exclusion, the recipient must have the right to use, possess, or enjoy the gift immediately. Crummey Trusts meet this requirement by allowing the beneficiary a temporary right to withdraw the gifted amount, typically within a 30-day window after the gift is made. If the withdrawal right is not exercised, the funds remain in the trust, subject to the terms set by the grantor.

While Crummey Trusts offer many advantages, they also require diligent record-keeping and clear communication with beneficiaries about their rights. Additionally, as beneficiaries age, they may choose to exercise their withdrawal rights, which could impact the grantor’s willingness to continue making gifts to the trust.

Crummey Trusts represent a strategic option for those looking to gift assets to minors while maintaining control over the distribution of those assets and optimizing tax benefits. By understanding the unique features and requirements of Crummey Trusts, you can make informed decisions that align with your estate planning goals and provide for your loved ones’ futures. If you would like to learn more about gifting, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: ElderLawAnswers “Crummey Trust: A Safe Way to Give Financial Gifts to Minors”

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Business Owners needs Succession Planning

Business Owners needs Succession Planning

Business owners typically have a high percentage of their net worth tied up in the business and sometimes the real estate where it operates. What’s surprising is how little attention is often given to the succession plan. Business owners need succession planning, says an article from Accounting Today, “The two sides to succession plans for private businesses.”

Starting with the operational side, who will take over the business owner’s work when they die, become incapacitated, or retire? If a business founder is in the weeds of the business, this is a big issue. The owner must have extensive conversations with key employees to discuss the details.

Multigenerational family ownership isn’t always the cure for a succession plan. Second- or third-generational roles must be planned, so capable people fill them. Bloodline succession doesn’t always work for running a business.

These conversations regarding roles, compensation and equity incentives must be very detailed. Not all employee leaders are willing to pour their lives into a privately owned business for the benefit of heirs without an incentive plan.

On the financial side of succession, who will become the owners of the deceased’s shares, and what financial arrangements will be made for that transfer? Businesses with the least amount of animosity and grief are those who have done the hard work: they have the business evaluated by an outside professional and having clear plans for how the successor owners will own and operate the business.

How will the transfer of the business take place in the future? An estate planning attorney should work with the business’ accountants, financial advisors, insurance brokers and other professionals to develop a clear plan for the business and the family.

If the owner is contemplating retirement, will they count on the income from the business operations to fund their retirement, or will they sell their shares to family members or outsiders? Who will oversee this transfer if the business owner becomes incapacitated?

Business owners needs succession planning for a privately held business. It is a lengthy process requiring input from skilled professionals, and ideally, it should begin the moment the business is well-established. There’s always time to tweak an existing plan, but never time to plan in an emergency. If you would like to learn more about business succession planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Accounting Today (Feb. 13, 2024) “The two sides to succession plans for private businesses”

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Understanding Marital Trusts in Your Estate Plan

Understanding Marital Trusts in Your Estate Plan

Married couples looking to secure their financial future and provide for the surviving spouse tax-efficiently may consider a marital trust.  This article will provide an understanding of marital trusts, how they work and their role in an your estate plan.

A marital trust is a legal arrangement in estate planning used predominantly by married couples. It is designed to provide financial benefits to a surviving spouse and can be a crucial part of an estate plan. Marital trusts ensure that upon the death of one spouse, the surviving spouse receives assets held in the trust. This arrangement not only offers financial security but also involves estate tax considerations.

In an estate plan, a marital trust comes into play upon the death of the first spouse. It’s created to transfer assets to the surviving spouse in a manner that is often exempt from immediate estate taxes, thanks to the unlimited marital deduction. This mechanism allows the surviving spouse to utilize the trust assets and potentially the income generated by these assets.

The unlimited marital deduction is a key component in how marital trusts operate. It allows for the transfer of an unrestricted amount of assets to the surviving spouse without incurring federal estate tax at the time of the first spouse’s death. This exemption is a significant advantage of using a marital trust in estate planning.

There are several types of marital trusts, each with specific features and benefits. A commonly used type is the Qualified Terminable Interest Property (QTIP) trust, which allows the first spouse to control how the trust’s assets are distributed after the death of the surviving spouse. Another type is the B Trust or credit shelter trust, which can help maximize estate tax exemption limits.

A marital trust offers numerous benefits to a surviving spouse. It ensures that the spouse can access trust assets and income, providing financial security. The trust can also stipulate how assets are managed and distributed, offering a layer of control and protection over the family’s financial legacy.

Estate tax plays a crucial role in the functioning of marital trusts. By utilizing a marital trust, you can defer the federal estate tax until the death of the surviving spouse. This deferral can result in significant tax savings, especially if the estate exceeds the federal estate tax exemption threshold.

While marital trusts offer many benefits, there are downsides to consider. One such drawback is their irrevocable nature; once established, the terms are generally set and cannot be easily altered. The surviving spouse’s estate may also be subject to increased estate taxes upon their death, depending on the trust’s structure and the value of the assets.

Establishing a marital trust involves careful planning and legal expertise. Consulting with an estate planning attorney will provide an understanding of martial trusts and ensure that the trust aligns with your estate plan. Staying informed and periodically reviewing your estate plan with an attorney is advisable to ensure that it continues to meet your objectives and complies with current laws.

There are different types of spousal trusts, each designed for specific situations and objectives. Apart from marital trusts, other options include Spousal Lifetime Access Trusts (SLATs) and bypass trusts, each offering unique advantages and serving different estate planning goals.

In conclusion, understanding marital trusts are a versatile and powerful tool will go a long way in your estate plan. They offer financial security for the surviving spouse and tax advantages and can be tailored to suit individual estate planning needs. If you would like to learn more about marital trusts, please visit our previous posts. 

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How Does an Estate Plan Address Young Beneficiaries?

How Does an Estate Plan Address Young Beneficiaries?

How does an estate plan address young beneficiaries? Certain beneficiaries require more intentional estate planning than others. While the law sets the age of adulthood at 18, specific testamentary instruments can redefine at what age a beneficiary is considered an adult. A recent article from The News-Enterprise, “When planning for young beneficiaries, consider all options,” explains how this works.

Young beneficiaries, especially 18-year-olds still in high school, are still immature, and their brains are still developing. Add a strong dose of grief to a teenager’s life, and even a bright, stable adolescent may not make good decisions.

Young adult beneficiaries are categorized in two ways: primary and contingent.

A primary beneficiary is one who the testator or grantor expects to be a young beneficiary at the time of distribution of assets or who is young when the estate planning documents are executed. This is typically the parents of young children or grandparents who intend to leave property to young grandchildren.

Contingent beneficiaries are those who are not anticipated to receive property as young beneficiaries. However, they could inherit if a primary beneficiary dies, such as when a grandchild receives an inheritance following their parent’s death.

Even for contingent beneficiaries, some level of planning needs to be done to define the age of majority and provide options for distribution. This is done through an immediate split of assets, with assets going into a general needs trust or a common pot trust.

Assets are most commonly left to young beneficiaries through an immediate split of assets upon estate distribution. Assets are held in a separate trust for each beneficiary, with a trustee appointed for each trust. Assets within the trust are typically available for the child’s health, education, maintenance, or support until the child reaches the predetermined age.

Upon reaching the age defined by the trust, the child may receive the assets either outright or incrementally over a period of time.

Another option is to use a common pot trust. This is used for parents with multiple minor children. This type of trust allows the assets to remain in one trust to be used for the needs of all children until a triggering event, such as the youngest child reaching age 18. At that time, the remaining trust assets are split into as many shares as there are beneficiaries, and the shares are distributed according to the remaining instructions. Each separate share is usually left in an ongoing general needs trust until a certain age.

Leaving property in trust for young beneficiaries doesn’t cut off their ability to use the money property. The trustee can continue to use the assets for the beneficiary’s care. However, whatever is left is distributed to the beneficiary upon reaching the distribution age.

Your estate planning attorney can help you determine how to address young beneficiaries in your estate plan. He or she will let you know the best way to structure trusts for your children or grandchildren based on your wishes and their ages. By redefining the age of majority and outlining specific directions for distributions, young beneficiaries can receive the most value from their inheritance. If you would like to learn more about managing assets for your beneficiaries, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: The News-Enterprise (Feb. 10, 2024) “When planning for young beneficiaries, consider all options”

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Use Qualified Disclaimer to avoid Inheriting IRA

Use Qualified Disclaimer to Avoid Inheriting IRA

The rules governing inherited Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) have changed over the years. They have become even more complex since the passage of the original SECURE Act. The inheritor of an IRA may be required to empty the account and pay taxes on the resulting income within 10 years. In some situations, beneficiaries might choose to use a Qualified Disclaimer to avoid inheriting the IRA, according to a recent article, “How to Opt Out of Inheriting an IRA” from Think Advisor.

Paying taxes on the distributions could put a beneficiary into a higher tax bracket. In some situations, beneficiaries may want to execute a Qualified Disclaimer and avoid inheriting both the account and the tax consequences associated with the inheritance.

Individuals who use a Qualified Disclaimer are treated as if they never received the property at all. Of course, you don’t enjoy the benefits of the inheritance but don’t receive the tax bill.

Suppose the decedent’s estate is large enough to trigger the federal estate tax. In that case, generation-skipping transfer tax issues may come into play, depending on whether there are any contingent beneficiaries.

An experienced estate planning attorney is needed to ensure that the disclaimer satisfies all requirements and is treated as a Qualified Disclaimer. It must be in writing, and it must be irrevocable. It also needs to align with any state law requirements.

The person who wishes to disclaim the IRA must provide the IRA custodian or the plan administrator with written notice within nine months after the latter of two events: the original account owner’s death or the date the disclaiming party turns 21 years old. The disclaiming person must also execute the disclaimer before receiving the inherited IRA or any of the benefits associated with the property.

Once you use the qualified disclaimer to avoid inheriting the IRA, it must pass to the remaining beneficiaries without the disclaiming party’s involvement. The disclaiming party cannot directly decide who will receive their interests, such as directing the inherited IRA to go to their child. If the disclaiming party’s child is already named as a beneficiary, their interest will be received as intended by that child.

The person inheriting the account must execute the disclaimer before receiving any benefits from the account. Even electing to take distributions will prevent the disclaimer from being effective, even if the person has not received any funds.

In some cases, you may be able to disclaim a portion of the inherited IRA. However, these are specific cases requiring the experience of an estate planning attorney. If you would like to learn more about inherited IRAs, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Think Advisor (Feb. 8, 2024) “How to Opt Out of Inheriting an IRA”

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Bypass Trust is a pivotal Estate Planning Tool

Bypass Trust is a pivotal Estate Planning Tool

A bypass trust, also known as a credit shelter trust or B trust, is a pivotal estate planning tool. It’s designed to help minimize estate taxes and ensure that a larger portion of your assets reaches your intended beneficiaries. A bypass trust works by allowing a surviving spouse to benefit from the trust assets during their lifetime, while preserving the trust principal for the next generation.

One of the primary benefits of a bypass trust is its ability to shield assets from estate taxes. This trust type strategically utilizes the federal estate tax exemption, allowing couples to effectively double the amount exempted from estate taxes. When one spouse passes away, the assets up to the estate tax exemption amount can be transferred into the bypass trust, thus reducing the taxable estate of the surviving spouse.

In the bypass trust arrangement, the trust is split into two separate trusts when the first spouse dies. The survivor’s trust is revocable and contains the surviving spouse’s share of the estate, while the deceased spouse’s share is transferred into the bypass trust, which becomes irrevocable. This separation allows for efficient estate tax management.

The surviving spouse plays a crucial role in a bypass trust. They have access to the trust income and, in some cases, the principal for certain needs. However, the trust assets remain in the trust and are not considered part of the surviving spouse’s estate, thus avoiding estate taxes upon their death.

Selecting a trustee for a bypass trust is an essential decision. The trustee manages the trust assets and ensures that they are used according to the terms of the trust. It’s essential to choose someone who is trustworthy and understands the financial and legal responsibilities involved.

Setting up a bypass trust requires careful planning and drafting by an experienced estate planning attorney. The trust document must outline the terms of the trust, including how the assets will be managed and distributed. This process also involves making decisions about beneficiaries and trustees.

Bypass trusts are closely tied to tax law, particularly federal estate tax laws. How a bypass trust is structured can significantly impact the estate taxes owed. Understanding current tax laws and how they affect your estate plan is crucial.

A bypass trust is most beneficial for couples with substantial assets that exceed the federal estate tax exemption amount. It’s an effective way to reduce estate taxes and ensure that more of your estate goes to your beneficiaries rather than to tax payments.

The landscape of estate planning and tax law is constantly evolving. It’s important to stay informed about changes in the law and how they may impact your estate plan. A bypass trust remains a relevant and pivotal tool in many estate planning strategies.

If you’re considering a bypass trust as part of your estate plan, consulting with an experienced estate planning attorney is essential. They can help you understand if a bypass trust is the right option for your situation and guide you through the process of setting one up. If you would like to learn more about bypass trusts and estate taxes, please visit our previous posts. 

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Information in our blogs is very general in nature and should not be acted upon without first consulting with an attorney. Please feel free to contact Texas Trust Law to schedule a complimentary consultation.
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