Category: Beneficiaries

Topics You need to Address before a Mid-Life Marriage

Topics You need to Address before a Mid-Life Marriage

Today’s wedding couple is as likely to be 30 or 50 years old as they are to be in their twenties. This trend underscores the importance of having open discussions about finances and retirement before exchanging vows. A recent article from Next Avenue, “The Talk Over-50s Should Have Before Tying the Knot.” Whether you’re getting married for the first time or the second, being closer to retirement has major financial implications. There are topics you need to address before a mid-life marriage.

The most important thing is to disclose each person’s financial situation completely. For some people, this includes their retirement goals and lifestyle choices. What are the potential healthcare issues? Is there debt to be considered? How are each managing their investments?

If both people own homes, a plan for going forward needs to ask a simple question: where will the couple live? Will one sell their home or turn it into a rental property? If it is sold, will the seller retain all the income, or will they buy into ownership of the joint residence? Emotional attachments to homes can make this a difficult discussion, but it needs to be addressed.

Getting married changes each spouse’s legal status, meaning estate plans must be updated. If both have an existing estate plan, it needs to be reviewed. Powers of Attorney, Healthcare Proxy, and other estate planning documents must also be updated.

While reviewing and revising estate plans, don’t neglect to check on any accounts with named beneficiaries. More than a few ex-spouses have received insurance proceeds or accounts because someone neglected to update these accounts. The named beneficiary overrides anything in your will, which is critical to updating the estate plan.

If you both have children from prior marriages, meeting with an estate planning attorney to determine how to manage property distribution is another critical step before getting married. You may wish to create and fund trusts before marriage, so assets remain separate property. There are as many different types of trusts as there are family situations, from keeping assets separate to providing for a surviving spouse while ensuring biological children receive their inheritance (SLAT), or family trusts where assets are moved into the trust for the surviving spouse to allocate assets to heirs based on their needs.

Social Security planning should also be part of the discussion. If one spouse is a widow who was receiving survivor benefits, they could lose those benefits when they get married.

Talk with an estate planning attorney to address these topics before a mid-life marriage. That way you fully understand your situation and ensure you and your spouse are ready for the changes and challenges of your senior years together. If you would like to learn more about mid-life or second marriages and estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Next Avenue (March 14, 2024) “The Talk Over-50s Should Have Before Tying the Knot”

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Avoiding Trouble with Your Trustee

Avoiding Trouble with Your Trustee

Estate planning and elder law considerations linger in the background of our senior years. We plan for senior living, incapacity, and Medicaid. We create an estate plan to protect and preserve your wealth and provide for heirs after you are gone. Trusts are a smart and well-known estate planning tool that names or appoints a trustee to administer and distribute the assets according to the terms. However, how often do estate owners ask, “What if something goes wrong and the trustee breaches their duties?” This blog offers tips on avoiding trouble with your trustee.

The case discussed in WealthCounsel’s article, Trustee of Living Trust Who Was Beneficiary of Decedent’s Residuary Estate Had Duty to Collect and Protect Assets Not Yet Transferred to Trust,” reminds us to take steps in appointing the right trustee and to draft the trust’s terms carefully.

The case discussed in WealthCounsel’s article involved three beneficiaries, three co-trustees and assets meant for a restated revocable trust. One of the trustees did not collect and protect untransferred trust assets. The deceased’s three children and their mother sued that trustee for breaching fiduciary duty.

The Barash v. Lembo case underscores a critical aspect of trusteeship: the duty to protect and collect assets awaiting transfer into the trust designated for distribution from the trust. Despite the probate process, trustees must proactively preserve trust assets, even before their transfer.

In this case, the Connecticut Supreme Court emphasized that trustees are entrusted with a fiduciary duty from the moment of acceptance. This duty extends to diligently administering the trust in the beneficiaries’ best interests, including the prudent collection and protection of assets.

Central to the trustee’s role is the obligation to uncover and address breaches of fiduciary duty by prior fiduciaries. Whether it’s compelling the transfer of assets or rectifying breaches, trustees must act in the trust’s best interests.

When a testamentary trust emerges as a will beneficiary, trustees are tasked with pursuing reasonable claims against the estate executor. This duty demands due diligence in securing all trust assets and ensuring comprehensive asset management.

While a duty of due diligence binds trustees, evaluating their performance hinges on contextual considerations. All trustee’s actions are scrutinized within the framework of trust administration dynamics, emphasizing the need for meticulous asset management.

In Barash v. Lembo, the court’s ruling underscores the significance of trustees’ proactive engagement in protecting and collecting trust assets. Trustees must exercise diligence and vigilance, leveraging legal avenues to preserve beneficiaries’ interests.

In your pursuit of avoiding trouble with your trustee, partner with a seasoned estate planning attorney who understands the intricacies of trust administration. If you would like to learn more about trustees and trust administration, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: WealthCounsel (Jan 19, 2024) “Trustee of Living Trust Who Was Beneficiary of Decedent’s Residuary Estate Had Duty to Collect and Protect Assets Not Yet Transferred to Trust.”

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New IRS Tax Rule affects Irrevocable Trusts in Estate Planning

New IRS Tax Rule affects Irrevocable Trusts in Estate Planning

Trusts have been foundational estate planning strategies for decades and are becoming more popular as economic shifts and the aging population highlight unique estate planning goals. An irrevocable trust is one practical estate planning strategy for excluding assets from an estate’s taxable value, safeguarding wealth and helping to meet asset threshold limits for government benefits like Medicaid. The Tax Advisor details how the 2023-2 IRS tax rule has significantly impacted estate planning strategies, particularly irrevocable trusts. We look at how this new IRS tax rule affects irrevocable trusts in your estate planning.

Capital gains taxes are the heart of the IRS Rule 2023-2 changes. Individuals pay taxes on the difference between an asset’s purchase price and a higher sell price as that asset’s value grows over time. The original purchase price is their cost basis or non-taxed value. Amounts over the cost basis are taxed as a capital gain. Assets include property, investments, cars and anything providing income or profit. If you create or update an estate plan, the IRS rule may change your estate planning or updates in 2024. Work with an experienced estate planning attorney to find the right type of trust for your goals and structure it accordingly.

The cost basis for an asset’s beneficiaries significantly impacts capital gains taxes once they sell. Capital gains from the deceased’s date of purchase will be much higher than fair market value on the date of death. An irrevocable trust typically gave heirs a break by calculating an inherited asset’s capital gains from the fair market value at the owner’s death. That tax break has changed.

The IRS issued Rule 2023-2 in early 2023, which impacts an inherited asset’s cost basis for capital gains taxes. The cost basis was calculated on the fair market value on the date of death but is based on the deceased’s date of purchase as of March 2023. Calculating taxes from the date of purchase is considered a “step-down,” meaning a lower cost base and higher capital gains. Conversely, the date of death means fair market value at a higher cost basis and less capital gains.

The main differentiator with an irrevocable trust is its ability to exclude assets from an estate’s valuation. The person establishing an irrevocable trust technically no longer owns the assets. This type of trust is a strategy that helps older adults applying for Medicaid benefits meet maximum thresholds.

With the new IRS rule, assets in an irrevocable trust are not part of the owner’s taxable estate at their death and are not eligible for the fair market valuation when transferred to an heir. The 2023-2 rule doesn’t give an heir the higher cost basis or fair market value of the inherited asset. Once they sell that asset, capital gains taxes are calculated using the value when the deceased purchased it.

Families increasingly use irrevocable trusts to safeguard assets from spend-down for government benefits, like Medicaid and VA Aid and Attendance.

Future considerations must include reevaluating how irrevocable trusts are structured to navigate the evolving tax landscape effectively. Planning strategies need to adapt to ensure that assets are protected, and taxes are minimized for the benefit of future generations.

This new IRS tax rule raises important considerations about how it might affect irrevocable trust estate planning. While it may seem like irrevocable trust planning could lead to additional taxes for beneficiaries, the reality is more nuanced. Future considerations in estate planning involve setting up irrevocable trusts that align with new IRS rules. If you would like to learn more about irrevocable trusts, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: The Tax Advisor (Nov. 1, 2023) “Rev. Rul. 2023-2’s Impact on Estate Plans.”

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Protect Family Wealth from Third Generation Curse

Have you heard of the “Great Wealth Transfer?” It’s the period when Baby Boomers are projected to pass trillions of dollars to the next generation. Creating or updating an estate plan to protect family wealth from the third-generation curse requires communication between generations centered on the values leading to wealth creation and a financial education on how to preserve and grow wealth.

The anticipated $84 trillion expected to be bequeathed to Generation X, Millennials, and Gen Z beneficiaries sounds enormous, but the third-generation curse may leave heirs with far less than expected. Often, wealth is earned by one generation, grown by the second generation who witnessed firsthand how hard their parents worked to maintain their wealth, and mismanaged or wasted by the third generation members, who are too far from the original wealth creation to respect it.

Many estate plans are structured to address tax planning, but that’s only one aspect of estate planning. Communicating the “why” of the estate plan, including where the money came from, how it has been stewarded over the years, and what needs to happen to protect it, will help beneficiaries have a deeper regard for their inheritance.

Boomer values may differ from their heir’s values, but they may also be similar, as they use different language to describe the same thing. Clarifying these values and communicating with heirs may help to give context to their inheritance and its importance.

Understanding your priorities and values should ideally lead to an estate plan reflecting your wishes. For instance, if the family prizes education, your estate planning attorney may advise you to create a trust to fund advanced education. Such a trust should be accompanied by a letter of intent explaining your wishes and values to both trustees and heirs.

If you’re unsure about mandating the use of funds, you may have your estate planning attorney create a discretionary trust with a similar letter explaining what you’d like them to use the funds for and why it’s important to you. Because circumstances change, the trustee will have the flexibility to distribute the funds as they see fit.

Creating or updating an estate plan to protect your family wealth from the third-generation curse will give everyone the peace of mind they crave. When the estate plan is completed, have a series of conversations with family members about what’s in the plan and why. They don’t need to know every detail, but broad strokes will go a long way in letting them know what you’ve done, your wishes, and your hopes for their future. If you would like to learn more about planning for future generations, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Kiplinger (March 12, 2024) “How Estate Planning Can Thwart the ‘Third-Generation Curse’”

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Risks of Adding a Child as a Life Insurance Beneficiary

Risks of Adding a Child as a Life Insurance Beneficiary

Life insurance is a critical part of family financial planning, ensuring that your loved ones are taken care of financially when you’re no longer around. A common approach many parents consider is adding their child’s name as a life insurance beneficiary, believing it to be a straightforward way to secure their child’s future. However, this decision carries unexpected complications and risks that many are unaware of. There are hidden risks of adding your child as a life insurance beneficiary.

At first glance, naming your minor child as a beneficiary on your life insurance policy seems like a caring gesture. It’s natural to want to provide for your children’s future directly. However, this well-intentioned move can lead to unforeseen legal and financial hurdles.

Minors are not legally allowed to receive life insurance benefits directly, says Policygenius in an article titled “Naming a child as a life insurance beneficiary.” If a minor is named as a beneficiary, the death benefit payout is delayed until a court appoints a custodian to manage the funds, which can take months. The surviving parent or a guardian named in your will is often appointed as the guardian. During this time, your child would not have access to the financial support you intended, potentially impacting their immediate needs.

Once an adult custodian is appointed, they can only use the money for court-approved expenses, such as living expenses and education. Your child might only access the funds at age 18. This process delays support and limits how the funds are used, contrary to your wishes.

Setting up a trust is the best way to ensure that your child benefits from your life insurance policy without legal entanglements or delays. Creating a trust for your minor child allows you to control how and when the benefits are distributed. You can specify conditions, such as funds for specific types of education, vacations, or an allowance, ensuring that the money supports your child in the most beneficial ways. This setup avoids the need for court intervention, providing a smoother transition of financial support.

While not all families choose to create a trust, naming an adult custodian or guardian for minor children is an essential step for estate planning. Appointing a guardian ensures that the person(s) you choose will both raise your children according to your wishes and financially manage the insurance policy death benefit on behalf of your child until they reach adulthood. Selecting a trusted individual for this role is crucial, since they will have significant control over your child’s financial and caregiving support.

Naming your spouse as the primary beneficiary, with a trust as the secondary, ensures that your spouse can manage household finances and support your child’s future if you’re no longer there. It’s essential to regularly review and update your life insurance beneficiaries to reflect life changes, ensuring that your policy aligns with your current wishes.

Adding a child’s name as a life insurance beneficiary might seem like a simple way to secure their future, but it comes with risks. By considering alternatives, like trusts or adult custodians, you can ensure that your child receives the support you intend without unnecessary legal hurdles or delays. If you would like to learn more about life insurance and estate planning, please visit our previous post. 

Reference: Policygenius (Aug. 17, 2023) “Naming a child as a life insurance beneficiary”

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When Gift Tax Return Should Be Filed

When Gift Tax Return Should Be Filed

Gift tax returns may be the most misunderstood and overlooked part of estate planning. The first mistake people make, according to the article “Know The Most Misunderstood Part Of Estate Plans: Gift Tax Returns” from Forbes, is not knowing when a gift tax return should be filed. Even if a gift you make is tax-free, you might have to file a return anyway. And there are times when you aren’t required to file a gift tax return, but it’s still a good idea to do so.

The gift tax return is IRS Form 709, which can be downloaded from the IRS website at no cost.

In most cases, the IRS can’t take action on an incorrect gift tax return once more than three years have passed since it was originally filed. There are exceptions for fraudulent returns or if a return is either missing information or substantially misstates information.

However, there’s no statute of limitations if you fail to file a gift tax return, and the IRS can raise questions about the transaction at any time. This includes coming after your heirs or your estate after you’ve passed. At that time, your heirs or executor may not have the evidence to prove you complied with the tax law. The IRS would be within its rights to assess not only the gift tax but also penalties and interest for all the years from the date of the gift tax filing to the current date.

For this reason alone, it’s a good idea to file a gift tax return if there’s even the slightest question of whether it’s necessary.

Form 709 has a section for reporting “non-gift transactions.” Some estate planning attorneys recommend taking advantage of this to start the statute of limitations clock ticking and prevent the IRS from recharacterizing your gift years later as a taxable gift.

Consider this especially when you sell assets to a trust or shift assets from one irrevocable trust to another, known as “decanting” a trust. Consider also filing a gift tax return for a non-gift if you take advantage of the generation-skipping transfer tax exemption through a trust.

Another common mistake is not realizing that certain actions are considered gifts by the IRS, whether in the general sense or not. Let’s say you sell an asset to your children at less than market value. The difference between the selling price and the market value is a gift. So is forgiving or making a loan at a below-market interest rate.

If parents pay bills for adult children, this might be considered a gift if the gifts are valuable or if you also make significant gifts of money or property to the same person in the same year.

A gift tax issue the IRS pays close attention to is valuation. There’s not much question about the value of a publicly traded security, but for many other assets, there’s a lot of room to question the correct value, and the gift tax is based on the asset value at the time the gift is made.

While spouses may make unlimited gifts to each other tax-free, there are times when gifts between spouses must be reported. One time is when the gift is defined in the tax code as a “terminable interest.” Another time is if one spouse is not a U.S. citizen. Gifts to that spouse from the other spouse exceeding a certain amount during the year must be reported on IRS Form 709.

It’s always a good idea to check with your estate planning attorney about when a gift tax return should be filed to protect yourself and your heirs. If you would like to read more about gifting and estate planning, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Forbes (Feb. 16, 2024) “Know The Most Misunderstood Part Of Estate Plans: Gift Tax Returns”

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Crummey Trusts are an Option to Gift to Minors

Crummey Trusts are an Option to Gift to Minors

If you’re looking for ways to pass wealth on to children or grandchildren, one valuable tool to consider may be the Crummey Trust. Crummey Trusts represent a strategic option for those looking to gift assets to minors. Named after the first individual to utilize this approach, the Crummey Trust offers a way to gift money to minors while enjoying significant tax advantages and maintaining control over the funds’ distribution.

A Crummey Trust allows you to gift assets to minors without those gifts being subject to gift tax up to a certain amount annually. As of 2024, you can give up to $18,000 annually to a minor through a Crummey Trust without incurring gift tax or affecting your lifetime gift tax exemption. This type of trust is particularly appealing because it prevents the minor from gaining direct access to the funds until they reach an age where they can manage the money responsibly.

A Crummey Trust operates on the concept of “present interest” gifts. For a gift to qualify for the annual gift tax exclusion, the recipient must have the right to use, possess, or enjoy the gift immediately. Crummey Trusts meet this requirement by allowing the beneficiary a temporary right to withdraw the gifted amount, typically within a 30-day window after the gift is made. If the withdrawal right is not exercised, the funds remain in the trust, subject to the terms set by the grantor.

While Crummey Trusts offer many advantages, they also require diligent record-keeping and clear communication with beneficiaries about their rights. Additionally, as beneficiaries age, they may choose to exercise their withdrawal rights, which could impact the grantor’s willingness to continue making gifts to the trust.

Crummey Trusts represent a strategic option for those looking to gift assets to minors while maintaining control over the distribution of those assets and optimizing tax benefits. By understanding the unique features and requirements of Crummey Trusts, you can make informed decisions that align with your estate planning goals and provide for your loved ones’ futures. If you would like to learn more about gifting, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: ElderLawAnswers “Crummey Trust: A Safe Way to Give Financial Gifts to Minors”

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Business Owners needs Succession Planning

Business Owners needs Succession Planning

Business owners typically have a high percentage of their net worth tied up in the business and sometimes the real estate where it operates. What’s surprising is how little attention is often given to the succession plan. Business owners need succession planning, says an article from Accounting Today, “The two sides to succession plans for private businesses.”

Starting with the operational side, who will take over the business owner’s work when they die, become incapacitated, or retire? If a business founder is in the weeds of the business, this is a big issue. The owner must have extensive conversations with key employees to discuss the details.

Multigenerational family ownership isn’t always the cure for a succession plan. Second- or third-generational roles must be planned, so capable people fill them. Bloodline succession doesn’t always work for running a business.

These conversations regarding roles, compensation and equity incentives must be very detailed. Not all employee leaders are willing to pour their lives into a privately owned business for the benefit of heirs without an incentive plan.

On the financial side of succession, who will become the owners of the deceased’s shares, and what financial arrangements will be made for that transfer? Businesses with the least amount of animosity and grief are those who have done the hard work: they have the business evaluated by an outside professional and having clear plans for how the successor owners will own and operate the business.

How will the transfer of the business take place in the future? An estate planning attorney should work with the business’ accountants, financial advisors, insurance brokers and other professionals to develop a clear plan for the business and the family.

If the owner is contemplating retirement, will they count on the income from the business operations to fund their retirement, or will they sell their shares to family members or outsiders? Who will oversee this transfer if the business owner becomes incapacitated?

Business owners needs succession planning for a privately held business. It is a lengthy process requiring input from skilled professionals, and ideally, it should begin the moment the business is well-established. There’s always time to tweak an existing plan, but never time to plan in an emergency. If you would like to learn more about business succession planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Accounting Today (Feb. 13, 2024) “The two sides to succession plans for private businesses”

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How Does an Estate Plan Address Young Beneficiaries?

How Does an Estate Plan Address Young Beneficiaries?

How does an estate plan address young beneficiaries? Certain beneficiaries require more intentional estate planning than others. While the law sets the age of adulthood at 18, specific testamentary instruments can redefine at what age a beneficiary is considered an adult. A recent article from The News-Enterprise, “When planning for young beneficiaries, consider all options,” explains how this works.

Young beneficiaries, especially 18-year-olds still in high school, are still immature, and their brains are still developing. Add a strong dose of grief to a teenager’s life, and even a bright, stable adolescent may not make good decisions.

Young adult beneficiaries are categorized in two ways: primary and contingent.

A primary beneficiary is one who the testator or grantor expects to be a young beneficiary at the time of distribution of assets or who is young when the estate planning documents are executed. This is typically the parents of young children or grandparents who intend to leave property to young grandchildren.

Contingent beneficiaries are those who are not anticipated to receive property as young beneficiaries. However, they could inherit if a primary beneficiary dies, such as when a grandchild receives an inheritance following their parent’s death.

Even for contingent beneficiaries, some level of planning needs to be done to define the age of majority and provide options for distribution. This is done through an immediate split of assets, with assets going into a general needs trust or a common pot trust.

Assets are most commonly left to young beneficiaries through an immediate split of assets upon estate distribution. Assets are held in a separate trust for each beneficiary, with a trustee appointed for each trust. Assets within the trust are typically available for the child’s health, education, maintenance, or support until the child reaches the predetermined age.

Upon reaching the age defined by the trust, the child may receive the assets either outright or incrementally over a period of time.

Another option is to use a common pot trust. This is used for parents with multiple minor children. This type of trust allows the assets to remain in one trust to be used for the needs of all children until a triggering event, such as the youngest child reaching age 18. At that time, the remaining trust assets are split into as many shares as there are beneficiaries, and the shares are distributed according to the remaining instructions. Each separate share is usually left in an ongoing general needs trust until a certain age.

Leaving property in trust for young beneficiaries doesn’t cut off their ability to use the money property. The trustee can continue to use the assets for the beneficiary’s care. However, whatever is left is distributed to the beneficiary upon reaching the distribution age.

Your estate planning attorney can help you determine how to address young beneficiaries in your estate plan. He or she will let you know the best way to structure trusts for your children or grandchildren based on your wishes and their ages. By redefining the age of majority and outlining specific directions for distributions, young beneficiaries can receive the most value from their inheritance. If you would like to learn more about managing assets for your beneficiaries, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: The News-Enterprise (Feb. 10, 2024) “When planning for young beneficiaries, consider all options”

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Divorce Impacts your Estate Plan

Divorce Impacts your Estate Plan

Divorce is a life-altering event that significantly impacts various aspects of life, including your estate plan. Clients either going through a divorce or have recently finalized one often feel uncertain about how the divorce will affect their estate. This article shares crucial aspects of revising your estate plan after a divorce, ensuring that your assets and loved ones are protected according to your current wishes.

When you get divorced, updating your estate plan is imperative, as your ex-spouse may still be entitled to certain benefits. Your estate, which includes all assets owned, might still be accessible to your ex-spouse unless changes are made. Revising your estate plan ensures that your assets are distributed according to your updated preferences. Updating your will is essential after a divorce. Your ex-spouse may still be named as the executor or beneficiary. By revising your will, you can ensure that your estate is administered by someone you trust and that your assets are distributed according to your latest intentions.

Revoking your power of attorney is a critical step post-divorce. Your ex-spouse may be able to make financial and care decisions on your behalf. It’s advisable to appoint someone you trust to handle these matters, ensuring that your affairs are managed according to your current preferences.

Beneficiary designations are often overlooked during estate planning after divorce. It’s crucial to revise these as your ex-spouse might still be listed as a beneficiary on life insurance policies, retirement accounts and other financial instruments. Updating these designations is a simple yet essential step in ensuring that your estate is distributed according to your current wishes. Your ex-spouse is likely named as a trustee or beneficiary if you have a living trust. Post-divorce, you need to revise this document to reflect your current wishes. This might include appointing a new trustee or changing the beneficiaries.

If you have minor children, your estate plan probably includes guardianship designations. Post-divorce, reassess these choices. You might want to name someone other than your ex-spouse as the guardian, ensuring that your children’s care aligns with your current wishes.

State law and the terms of your divorce decree can impact your estate plan. Understanding these implications and ensuring that your estate plan complies with legal requirements is important. An experienced estate planning attorney can provide valuable insights and guidance.

Don’t wait until the divorce is finalized. Start updating your estate plan as soon as the divorce is pending. This proactive approach ensures that your interests are protected throughout the divorce process.

Divorce significantly affects your estate plan, and it’s crucial to take timely action to revise it. Remember, updating your estate plan post-divorce is not just a legal necessity; ensuring that your assets and loved ones are protected according to your current wishes is crucial. Don’t hesitate to seek professional assistance to navigate this complex process. If you would like to read more about estate planning post divorce, please visit our previous posts. 

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Information in our blogs is very general in nature and should not be acted upon without first consulting with an attorney. Please feel free to contact Texas Trust Law to schedule a complimentary consultation.
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