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Category: Divorce

how do I keep money in the family? 

Can an Inheritance Lead to Trouble?

Can an inheritance lead to trouble? Is it a blessing, or a curse? That’s the question from the recent article “When One Spouse Gets an Inheritance It Can Be Hard on a Marriage” posed by The Wall Street Journal. The emotional high of receiving an inheritance is often paired with legal issues. Emotional and life changing decisions can take a toll on the best of partnerships. Spouses may disagree with how assets should be used, or if an inheritance should be set aside for children from a prior marriage. The question of what happens to the inheritance in the case of death or divorce also needs to be addressed.

Couples are advised to start exploring these issues, with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney as soon as they know an inheritance is in their future. For starters, couples should learn about the legal issues surrounding inheritances. Most states recognize inheritances as separate property. However, if funds are co-mingled in a joint account, or the deed for an inherited house is in both names, it becomes more complicated to separate out, if necessary.

Couples who decide to use an inheritance for a large purchase need to be mindful of how the purchase is structured and recorded. Writing a check directly from an account dedicated to the inherited funds and keeping records to show the withdrawal is recommended. If a check needs to be drawn from a joint or single account, the inherited funds should only be placed in the account for a short period, preferably close to the time of purchase, so it is clear the funds were transferred solely for the purpose of the particular transaction.

Before an inheritance leads to trouble, it would be wise to obtain a written agreement between spouses, making it clear the money was contributed with the understanding if there is a sale of the property or a divorce, inherited funds and any appreciation would be credited back to the contributing spouse.

For one couple, a $100,000 inheritance received by a man in his mid-50s with adult children and a second spouse created friction. The man wanted to set the funds aside for his children from a prior marriage, and his wife felt hurt, because she had every intention of giving the money to his children in the event of her husband’s death. She didn’t see the need to keep things separate. However, when advisors ran a series of projections showing the wife would be well cared for in the event of his death, since most of his own $1 million estate was earmarked for her, she relented. They also helped her understand if she racked up big medical bills later in her own life or creditors went after the estate, the money would be better protected by keeping it separate.

It is important for couples understand the risks that come with co-mingling inheritances before it leads to trouble. Another example: a couple who expected to receive a sizable inheritance and did not save for their own retirement. Instead, they used up the wife’s inheritance for their children’s college educations. When the husband filed for divorce, the wife was left with no access to her ex-husband’s expected large inheritance and had no retirement savings.

These are not easy conversations to have. However, couples need to look past the emotions and make business-like decisions about how to preserve and protect inheritances. It’s far easier to do so while the marriage is intact, then when a divorce or other unexpected life event shifts the financial event horizon.

If you would like to learn more about the role inheritances can play in estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: The Wall Street Journal (Sep. 13, 2020) “When One Spouse Gets an Inheritance It Can Be Hard on a Marriage”

 

how do I keep money in the family? 

Make the Most of Your Social Security Benefits

Famous motivational speaker Zig Zigler reportedly said “If you want to earn more, learn more.” That’s true for careers and investments. It is also true for Social Security. The more you know how it works, the more likely you’ll be able to make the most of your Social Security benefits, says the article “Social Security tips: 10 ways to get more money in benefits” from USA Today.

1—Check your Social Security work record for errors. Create an account for yourself at the “My Social Security” page on the Social Security Administration’s website. You’ll be able to see your entire income history. Check it against your tax returns to be sure that the numbers are right. If you see mistakes, call the SSA and have them fixed now.

2—Work for at least 35 years. The SSA uses a formula to calculate benefits based on 35 years of earnings (adjusted for inflation). If you’re thinking about working for 28 years, your benefits are going to be lower. If you can keep working to reach the 35-year mark, you’ll increase your benefits.

3—Boost your earnings. Bigger paychecks equal bigger benefits. If it’s too late for a career change, adding a part-time job could boost your lifetime income. You could also just work a few more years—it makes a difference. The annual statement from SSA on the website will show you just how much.

4—Wait until age 70 to start collecting. For every year after your full retirement age, your benefits grow by about 8%. If you are able to tap other sources of income before you turn 70, you can maximize this benefit.

5—You can also start collecting benefits at age 62. Your checks will be smaller, but if you have had a job loss and need the money, you are now eligible to take them. There will be many more checks now, than if you waited until age 70. If your health is poor, or your family history does not include longevity, there’s no benefit in waiting.

6—Understand how spousal benefits work. For non-working spouses, Social Security allows a spouse to collect a benefit based on their spouse’s earnings record – up to one half (50%) of the spouse’s benefits.

7—Can you delay a divorce? You might be able to collect benefits based on your former spouse’s earnings record, if you meet the requirements. You need to have been married for at least ten years. If it’s been nine years, and if your not-soon-enough ex has significantly higher earnings than you, consider delaying until the ten year mark. Not everyone can do this, but if you can, it could make a big difference.

8—Keep your income lower, while collecting Social Security. If you plan on working while collecting benefits, understand that some of your benefit dollars will be withheld. For someone who is younger than their Full Retirement Age in 2020, for every $2 earned over $18,240, $1 dollar will be deducted. If you reach Full Retirement Age in 2020, the SSA will deduct $1 for every $3 you earn above $48,500, until the month you do reach full retirement age. Be mindful of the “cost” of your working on your benefits.

9—Find out if you qualify for survivor or disability benefits. There are Social Security benefits for spouses, ex-spouses, the disabled and survivors. Other programs with benefits include Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).  If your spouse dies after working long enough to qualify for Social Security, the surviving spouse and children under age 17 may also be able to collect survivor benefits.

10—Think strategically about Social Security. If your spouse has a stronger earnings history than you, they might delay collecting benefits to age 70 to maximize the size of their benefit checks. If they die before you, as a surviving spouse you may collect either their benefit amount or your own—whichever is larger.

Reference: USA Today (July 28, 2020) “Social Security tips: 10 ways to get more money in benefits”

 

how do I keep money in the family? 

Planning An Estate After A Divorce

Planning an estate after a divorce involves adopting a different type of arithmetic. Without a spouse to anchor an estate plan, the executors, trustees, guardians or agents under a power of attorney and health care proxies will have to be chosen from a more diverse pool of those that are connected to you.

Wealth Advisor’s recent article entitled “How to Revise Your Estate Plan After Divorce” explains that beneficiary forms tied to an IRA, 401(k), 403(b) and life insurance will need to be updated to show the dissolution of the marriage.

There are usually estate planning terms that are included in agreements created during the separation and divorce. These may call for the removal of both spouses from each other’s estate planning documents and retirement accounts. For example, in New York, bequests to an ex-spouse in a will prepared during the marriage are voided after the divorce. Even though the old will is still valid, a new will has the benefit of realigning the estate assets with the intended recipients.

However, any trust created while married is treated differently. Revocable trusts can be revoked, and the assets held by those trusts can be part of the divorce. Irrevocable trusts involving marital property are less likely to be dissolved, and after the death of the grantor, distributions may be made to an ex-spouse as directed by the trust.

A big task in the post-divorce estate planning process is changing beneficiaries. Ask for a change of beneficiary forms for all retirement accounts. Without a stipulation in the divorce decree ending their interest, an ex-spouse still listed as beneficiary of an IRA or life insurance policy may still receive the proceeds at your death.

Divorce makes children assume responsibility at an earlier age. Adult children in their 20s or early 30s typically assume the place of the ex-spouse as fiduciaries and health care proxies, as well as agents under powers of attorney, executors and trustees.

If the divorcing parents have minor children, they must choose a guardian in their wills to care for the children, in the event that both parents pass away.

Ask an experienced estate planning attorney to help you with the issues that are involved in planning an estate after a divorce. There are other important times in your life when you should review your planning.  To learn more, please read our previous posts.

Reference: Wealth Advisor (July 7, 2020) “How to Revise Your Estate Plan After Divorce”

 

how do I keep money in the family? 

How Can You Disinherit A Child?

How can you disinherit a child, and be sure that your plan is going to stand up to challenge? Let’s say you want to leave everything you own to your children, but you can’t stand and don’t trust their spouses. That might make you want to delay making an estate plan, because it’s a hard thing to come to terms with, says a recent article “Dealing with disinheritance, spouses” from the Times Herald-Record. There are options, but make the right choice, or your estate could face challenges.

Some people choose to leave nothing at all for their child in the will, so that if there is a divorce or if the child dies, their assets won’t end up in the daughter or son-in-law’s pocket. For some parents, particularly those who are estranged from their children, this can create more problems than it solves.

Disinheriting a child with a will is not always a good idea. If you die with assets in your name only, they go through the court proceeding called probate, when the will is used to guide asset distribution. The law requires that all children, even disinherited ones, are notified that you have died, and that probate is going to occur. The disinherited child can object to the provisions in the will, which can lead to a will contest. Most families engaged in litigation over a will become estranged—even those that weren’t beforehand. The cost of litigation will also take a bite out of the value of your estate.

A common tactic is to leave a small amount of money to the disinherited child in the will and add a no-contest clause in the will. The no-contest clause expressly states that anyone who contests the will loses any right to their inheritance. Here is the problem: the disgruntled child may still object, despite the no contest clause, and invalidate the will by claiming undue influence or incapacity or that the will was not executed properly. If their claims are valid, then they’ll have great satisfaction of undoing your planning.

A trust is better to disinherit a child than a will. Not only do trusts avoid probate, but (unless state law requires otherwise at death) the children do not receive notice of the creation of a trust. An inheritance trust, where you leave money to your child, names a trustee to be in charge of the trust and the child is the only beneficiary of the trust. The child might be a co-trustee, but they do not have complete control over the trust. The spouse has no control over the inheritance, and you can also name what happens to the assets in the trust, if the child dies.

This kind of planning is called “controlling from the grave,” but it’s better than not knowing if your child will be able to protect their inheritance from a divorce or from creditors.

With a national divorce rate around fifty percent, it’s hard to tell if the in-law you welcome with an open heart, will one day become a predatory enemy in the future, even after you are gone. The use of trusts can ensure that assets remain in the bloodline and protect your hard work from divorces, lawsuits, creditors and other unexpected events.

Reference: Times Herald-Record (June 6, 2020) “Dealing with disinheritance, spouses”

 

how do I keep money in the family? 

What are the Blind Spots in Social Security?

The SimplyWise survey also found that there are five areas that are especially confusing to people., Only one in 300 of those who took a five-question quiz answered all the questions correctly, reports Think Advisor in the article entitled “5 Common Blind Spots on Social Security.”

Here are some Social Security questions that might be relevant and not knowing the answers could cost you thousands of dollars a year in income.

  1. What age do I claim to maximize my monthly earned Social Security benefit? The age is 70, although 62 years is when an individual can first make a claim. However, your benefits grow each year you wait—up to age 70. According to SimplyWise, only 42% of quiz takers got this answer right.
  2. What’s the earliest age non-disabled people can get survivor benefits? A mere 9% answered this correctly. It’s age 60. Many think it is age 62, the age people can begin claiming Social Security.That is correct for earned benefits and spousal benefits.
  3. Is a current spouse required to be getting Social Security benefits, for the other spouse to qualify for spousal benefits? Yes. Just 20% of respondents got this answer correct. It is important to understand that if both spouses are claiming Social Security, one can either receive their own benefit or 50% of their spouse’s amount, whichever is more.
  4. Is a divorced spouse able to get survivor benefits? Yes, and just 38% of people got this answer right. The criteria is somewhat different than for married people. The marriage must have lasted at least 10 years, and there are certain rules that apply to remarrying. However, divorced spouses can collect survivor benefits under a deceased ex-spouse.
  5. Can divorced spouses get spousal benefits? Yes, and 67% got this answer correct. Divorced spouses who were married for at least 10 years and haven’t remarried can claim spousal benefits.

Reference: Think Advisor (Feb. 13, 2020) “5 Common Blind Spots on Social Security”