Category: Life Insurance

Preparing for Retirement with a Special Needs Child

Preparing for Retirement with a Special Needs Child

For parents of children with disabilities, the challenges of preparing for retirement with a special needs child are far higher than for families with healthy, high-functioning adults. Planning for your own retirement, while needing to secure the stability and basic needs of a child who will be a dependent forever often feels impossible, according to the recent article “Planning for Your Retirement, and for a Child’s Special Needs, All at Once” from The New York Times.

Even under the best of circumstances, where there’s plenty of money available and many hands to help, caring for an adult child with special needs is emotionally and physically challenging. As parents age, they have to address their own needs plus the needs of their adult dependent. Who will care for them, provide safe and comfortable housing and care for them when their parents no longer can?

Understanding the entire picture can be difficult, even for parents with the best of intentions. First, they need to understand how preparing for their retirement will be different than other families without a special needs child. Their investments need to be multi-generational to last not just for their lifetimes, but for their child’s lifetime. They can’t be too conservative because they need long-term growth.

In addition, special needs parents need to keep a certain amount of funds liquid and easily accessible, for times when their child needs a new piece of expensive equipment immediately.

One of the parents will often leave the workforce to provide care or take a lower paying position to be more available for care. This creates a double hit; the household budget is reduced at the same time its strained by costs not covered by benefits or insurance. Paying for gas to drive to therapy appointments and day program, buying supplies not covered by insurance, like adult diapers, waterproof bedding, compression garments to promote circulation, specialized diets, etc. adds up quickly.

Even with public health assistance, finding affordable housing is not easy. One adult may need supervised care in a group home, while others may need in-home care. However, the family home may need to be modified to accommodate their physical disabilities. With wait times lasting several years, many families feel they have no choice but to keep their family member at home.

Another challenge: if the parents wanted to downsize to a smaller house or move to a state where housing costs are lower, they may not be able to do so. Most of the public benefits available to special needs people are administered through Medicaid at the state level. Moving to a state with a lower cost of housing may also mean losing access to the disabled individuals’ benefits or being placed at the end of the waiting list for services in a new state.

For disabled individuals, maintaining eligibility is a key issue. Family members who name a disabled individual as a beneficiary don’t understand how they are jeopardizing their ability to access public benefits. Any money intended for a disabled person must be held in a specialized financial instrument, such as a special needs trust.

The money in a special needs trust (SNT) may be used for quality-of-life enhancements like a cellphone, computer, better food, care providers, rent and utilities among other qualified expenses.

There are two main categories of SNTs: first party trusts, created with assets belonging to the individual. Any money in this trust must go to reimburse the state for the cost of their care. Another is a third-party special needs trust, established and funded by someone else for the benefit of the disabled individual. These are typically funded by parent’s life insurance proceeds and second-to-die life insurance policies. Both parents are covered under it, and the policy pays out after the second spouse dies, providing a more affordable option than insuring both parents separately. Your estate planning attorney can assist you in preparing for retirement with knowledge that your special needs child’s future is secure. If you would like to read more about planning for families with a disabled loved one, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: The New York Times (Aug. 27, 2022) “Planning for Your Retirement, and for a Child’s Special Needs, All at Once”

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Mistakes to Avoid with Beneficiary Designations

Many people don’t know that their will doesn’t control who inherits all of their assets when they die. Some assets pass by beneficiary designation. Assets like life insurance, annuities and retirement accounts all pass by beneficiary designation. There are mistakes to avoid with beneficiary designations.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Beneficiary Designations: 5 Critical Mistakes to Avoid” lists five critical mistakes to avoid when dealing with your beneficiary designations:

  1. Failing to designate any beneficiary at all. Many people forget to name a beneficiary for retirement accounts or life insurance. They may forget, didn’t know they had to, or just never got around to filling out the forms. If you don’t name a beneficiary for life insurance or retirement accounts, the company will apply its rules about where the assets will go after you die. For life insurance, the proceeds will typically be paid to your probate estate. For retirement benefits, if you’re married, your spouse will most likely receive the assets. However, if you’re unmarried, the retirement account will likely be paid to your probate estate, which has negative income tax ramifications.
  2. Failing to consider special circumstances. Not every family member should get an asset directly. This includes minor children, those with specials needs and people who can’t manage assets or with creditor issues.
  3. Misspelling a beneficiary’s name. Beneficiary designation forms can be filled out incorrectly and the beneficiary designation form may not be specific. People also change their names through marriage or divorce, or assumptions can be made about a person’s legal name that later prove incorrect. Failing to have names match exactly can cause delays in payouts, and in a worst-case scenario of two people with similar names, it can result in a court case.
  4. Forgetting to update your beneficiaries. Your choice of beneficiary may likely change over time as circumstances change. Naming a beneficiary is part of an overall estate plan, and just as life changes, so should your estate plan. Beneficiary designations are an important part of that plan—make certain that they’re updated regularly.
  5. Failing to review beneficiary choices with legal and financial advisers. How beneficiary designations should be completed is a component of an overall financial and estate plan. Involve your legal and financial advisers to determine what’s best for your circumstances. Note that beneficiary designations are designed to guarantee that you have the ultimate say over who will get your assets when you pass away. Taking the time to carefully (and correctly) choose your beneficiaries and then periodically reviewing those choices and making any necessary updates will allow you to remain in control of your money.

Your estate planning attorney will help you avoid any mistakes with your beneficiary designations, and make sure your choices are in line with your overall estate plan. If you would like to learn more about beneficiary designations, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Kiplinger (June 6, 2022) “Beneficiary Designations: 5 Critical Mistakes to Avoid”

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Are Testamentary Trusts a Good Idea?

Are Testamentary Trusts a Good Idea?

Not everyone wants to leave everything to their heirs without restrictions. Some want to protect money inherited from their own parents for their children or want to keep an irresponsible child from squandering an inheritance. For people who want more control over their assets, a testamentary trust might be useful, according to the recent article “What Is a Testamentary Trust and How Do I Create One? from U.S. News & World Report. A testamentary trust can also be used to leave assets to minor children, who may not legally inherit wealth directly. Are testamentary trusts a good idea?

Your estate planning attorney may have some other, better tools for you.

A testamentary trust is a trust created to hold assets created in a last will and testament. It does not become active until after a person dies and the will has been validated by probate court. Once this has happened, the trust is activated and the decedent’s assets are placed into the trust. At this point, the trustee is in charge of the trust’s management and asset distribution.

A testamentary trust is different from a living trust. The living trust, also known as a revocable trust, is created while the grantor (the person making the trust) is still living. When the person dies, the trust doesn’t go through probate and assets are distributed according to the directions in the trust.

Both testamentary and living or revocable trusts are used in estate planning. However, the living trust may have far more flexibility and be easier to manage for a very simple reason: testamentary trusts are part of the probate process, administered through probate for as long as they are in effect.

There are advantages and disadvantages to both kinds of trusts. The testamentary trust is often used to manage assets for minor children. It’s also a good tool if you’re worried about an adult child getting divorced and keeping the family money in the family. The long-term court oversight is more protective, which may be desirable, but it can also be more expensive.

The best reason for a testamentary estate? When someone involved in the person’s estate loves to get tangled up in litigation. Having to deal with probate court in addition to civil court might make a litigious family member a little less likely to bring a lawsuit.

Your will must contain specific directions for what assets go into the testamentary trust. Assets with beneficiary designations, such as life insurance policies and retirement accounts, don’t go into any trusts, unless a trust is designated as the beneficiary of the policy or account. They are instead distributed directly to beneficiaries outside of the probate estate.

Changing or annulling a testamentary trust is relatively easy while you are living—simply update your will to reflect your new wishes.  However, once you have passed, the testamentary trust becomes irrevocable and may not be changed.

Are testamentary trusts a good idea for your situation? Your estate planning attorney will evaluate these and other estate planning tools to find the best solutions to protect you and your family. If you would like to read more about trusts in general, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: U.S. News & World Report (July 14, 2022) “What Is a Testamentary Trust and How Do I Create One?

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Actions to avoid when Shopping for Life Insurance

Actions to avoid when Shopping for Life Insurance

Life expectancy is important because life insurers take on a financial risk by covering you. The higher the chance of an insurer having to pay out your policy, the more you’ll pay and the more difficult it will be to get coverage. There are some actions and behaviors to avoid when shopping for life insurance.

Market Watch’s recent article entitled“5 reasons you might have to pay more for life insurance” says that if you fall into one of the following groups, you may be deemed a high risk for life insurance.

  1. You have a pre-existing health condition. This is something such as cancer, diabetes and any type of autoimmune disorder. Morbid obesity is a big risk. However, if you’re managing your pre-existing condition well, insurers will consider that when setting rates. That’s because the more controlled your health risk is, the more favorable it is for your own mortality. That is good for everybody involved. It is a “win-win.”
  2. You work a dangerous job. If you work in a risky workplace, you’ll be treated differently from someone with a desk job. The list of “dangerous” jobs is based on specialized tasks. However, if leave your hazardous job, you can ask your life insurance agent to re-evaluate your rates.
  3. You’re a daredevil If you enjoy the thrill of extreme sports, like car racing, piloting, skydiving, scuba diving, or mountain climbing, you’ll likely have higher life insurance rates. Insurers will consider the level of risk you’re taking and how frequently you participate in these activities.
  4. You’re receiving drug or alcohol treatment. The type of drug and the length of time you’ve been clean play a part. Insurance companies look carefully at relapse rates, as well as the likelihood of contracting diseases through drug use, like hepatitis C.
  5. You have a recent DUI. A DUI is more than a blip on your driving record. It can also impact your ability to get low-cost life insurance. If you received a DUI in the past year, you could expect a higher premium when you apply for life insurance. If you have multiple DUIs over five years ago, you’ll likely pay more than twice as much for coverage as someone with a clean driving record. However, the insurance company may not penalize you for just one DUI that happened five or more years ago.

Actions to avoid like these when you are shopping for life insurance can increase your chances of approval. Make sure to work with a life insurance broker or independent agent. They partner with a number of life insurance companies, so they can help you navigate your options. If you would like to read more about life insurance and estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Market Watch (Jan. 25, 2022) “5 reasons you might have to pay more for life insurance”

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Discuss Estate Planning before Marriage

Discuss Estate Planning before Marriage

Romance is in the air. Spring is the time for marriages, and with America coming out of the pandemic, wedding calendars will be filled. It is wise to discuss estate planning before marriage.

AZ Big Media’s recent article entitled “5 estate planning tips for newlyweds” gives those ready to walk down the aisle a few things to consider.

  1. Prenuptial Agreement. Commonly referred to as a prenup, this is a written contract that you and your spouse enter into before getting legally married. It provides details on what happens to finances and assets during your marriage and, of course, in the event of divorce. A prenup is particularly important if one of the spouses already has significant assets and earnings and wishes to protect them in the event of divorce or death.
  2. Review you restate plan. Even if you come into a marriage with an existing plan, it’s out of date as soon as you’re wed.
  3. Update your beneficiary designations. Much of an individual’s estate plan takes place by beneficiary designations. Decide if you want your future spouse to be a beneficiary of life insurance, IRAs, or other pay on death accounts.
  4. Consider real estate. A married couple frequently opts to live in the residence of one of the spouses. This should be covered in the prenup. However, in a greater picture, decide in the event of the death of the owner, if you’d want this real estate to pass to the survivor, or would you want the survivor simply to have the right to live in the property for a specified period of time.
  5. Life insurance. You want to be sure that one spouse is taken care of in the event of your death. A married couple often relies on the incomes of both spouses, but death will wreck that plan. Think about life insurance as a substitute for a spouse’s earning capacity.

If you are soon-to-be-married or recently married and want to discuss estate planning before marriage with an expert, make an appointment with a skilled estate planning attorney. If you would like to learn more about pre-nuptial agreements, and other planning before marriage, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference:  AZ Big Media (March 23, 2022) “5 estate planning tips for newlyweds”

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Life Insurance can help Women with Estate Planning

Life Insurance can help Women with Estate Planning

The 2021 Insurance Barometer Survey revealed that 43% of women believe they would leave their families in a difficult financial situation, if they were to die prematurely. This is five percentage points higher than the men who were surveyed. While the need for planning for both women and their families are present, women aren’t satisfied they have done an adequate job when making certain that their goals are met and their families will be financially secure. Life insurance can help women with estate planning.

Insurance News Net’s recent article entitled “How Life Insurance Might Solve Women’s Estate-Planning Issues” says that women face unique planning challenges, like the fact they only earn about 82.3% compared to their male counterparts’ earnings, the U.S. Department of Labor reports. Lower earnings add to the difficulty of saving adequately for retirement. A recent Prudential survey found that only 54% of women have saved for retirement, with an average savings of $115,412, versus 61% of men, with an average savings of $202,859.

Women must also frequently care for generations of family members. In addition to caring for children, 75% of in-home care providers for older people are women, most often daughters, according to the American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance. These seniors are often financially dependent on their female caregivers, so a woman may find herself supporting herself, a spouse or partner, her children and her aging parents. Planning for the continued care of these dependent family members is critical, if a woman is unable to continue in her role.

There is also the fact that women, on average, have longer lifespans than men. For women who are either married to or partnered with a man, this means a greater likelihood that the woman will be widowed later in her life. Women, on average, may need care for more extended periods than men during their later years. These expenses could substantially deplete the assets women plan to leave their families at death.

Life insurance can help protect families in a tax-advantaged way, while also providing income for retirement or benefits for long-term care. A life insurance death benefit can provide liquidity to care for multiple generations of dependent family members. If that policy builds cash value, as the need to care for family members eventually wanes, the owner can use the cash value for additional income in retirement. Some policies can provide funds for long-term care, if the need arises. Even a single policy can address all three planning concerns.

Speak with an estate planning attorney about the way that life insurance can help women with estate planning. If you would like to learn more about estate planning for women, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Insurance News Net (March 9, 2022) “How Life Insurance Might Solve Women’s Estate-Planning Issues”

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Conducting an Estate Inventory is Vital

Conducting an Estate Inventory is Vital

When a loved one dies, it may be necessary for their estate to go through probate—a court-supervised process in which his or her estate is settled, outstanding debts are paid and assets are distributed to the deceased person’s heirs. An executor is tasked with overseeing the probate process. An important task for an executor is submitting a detailed inventory of the estate to the probate court. Conducting an estate inventory is vital to ensuring your probate is not problematic.

Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “What Is Included in an Estate Inventory?” looks at the estate inventory. During probate, the executor is charged with several duties, including collecting assets, estimating the fair market value of all assets in the estate, ascertaining the ownership status of each asset and liquidating assets to pay off outstanding debts, if needed. The probate court will need to see an inventory of the estate’s assets before distributing those assets to the deceased’s heirs.

An estate inventory includes all the assets of an estate belonging to the individual who’s passed away. It can also include a listing of the person’s liabilities or debts. In terms of assets, this would include:

  • Bank accounts, checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts and CDs
  • Investment accounts
  • Business interests
  • Real estate
  • Pension plans and workplace retirement accounts, such as 401(k)s, 403(b)s and 457 plans
  • Life insurance, disability insurance, annuities and long-term care insurance
  • Intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks and patents
  • Household items
  • Personal effects; and

Here’s what’s included in an estate inventory on the liabilities side:

  • Home mortgages;
  • Outstanding business loans, personal loans and private student loans;
  • Auto loans associated with a vehicle included on the asset side of the inventory
  • Credit cards and open lines of credit
  • Any unpaid medical bills
  • Unpaid taxes; and
  • Any other outstanding debts, including unpaid court judgments.

There is usually no asset or liability that’s too small to be included in the estate inventory. Working closely with an estate planning attorney to make sure you are conducting an estate inventory is vital to a smooth probate process. If you would like to learn more about probate, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Feb. 15, 2022) “What Is Included in an Estate Inventory?”

 

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how divorcing over fifty effects estate planning

How Divorcing over Fifty effects Estate Planning

If you are and older couple considering a divorce, take care to consider how divorcing over fifty effects estate planning. According to the Pew Research Center, the divorce rate has more than doubled for people over 50 since the 1990s. The Pandemic is also adding to the uptick, says AARP’s recent article entitled “Getting Divorced? It’s Time to Update Your Caregiving Plan.”

A divorce can be financially draining. Moreover, later-in-life divorces frequently impact women’s finances more than men’s. That is because in addition to depressed earnings from time spent out of the workforce raising children, women find themselves more financially vulnerable post-divorce and more likely to serve as caregivers again in the future. Even so, for partners of all genders, it is important to consider the longer-term financial outlook, not just the financial situation you’re in when you are actually dissolving the marriage.

You and your spouse will be dividing assets and liabilities and the responsibilities regarding spousal support. How one of you will live if the other gets sick or passes away should also be part of this conversation.

Consider where you’ll need to make changes. One may be removing your spouse from beneficiary designations on all your accounts. (In some states, this is automatic.) Your divorce agreement may also include buying life insurance or maintaining a trust or beneficiary designations for one another.

Create or update your estate plan immediately. You should also ask your estate planning attorney to review your marital agreement. They will have suggestions about how to align your estate plan with your divorce obligations. If you and your ex are co-parenting children, your estate plan should address who their guardians will be, if both biological parents pass away. It is also important to address who will manage any inheritance, if you don’t want your ex-spouse handling assets you may leave to your children.

Create your life care plan, which means naming health care proxies or surrogates (who will take care of your medical affairs, if you’re in need of caregiving), designating a financial power of attorney (who will take care of your finances and legal affairs), and naming a guardian for yourself if you’re incapacitated.

Consider the way in which your divorce will impact your children and extended family if you need caregiving. At a minimum, agree between yourselves what level of contact you can manage and, if you share children and loved ones, know that your lives will cross along the way.

While your marriage may not last, the connections will, so make a wise plan. Your estate planning attorney will help advise you on how divorcing over fifty effects your estate planning. If you would like to learn more about estate planning and divorce, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: AARP (Jan. 25, 2022) “Getting Divorced? It’s Time to Update Your Caregiving Plan”

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Best Uses of Life Insurance Benefits

Best Uses of Life Insurance Benefits

The loss of a spouse is an extremely stressful event. It comes with many emotions that can be overwhelming for the bereaved. Hopefully, life insurance is one thing that was put in place to allow those remaining to process their loss without fretting over their finances. But what are the best uses of life insurance benefits, says Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “What Is the Best Way for a Widow to Use Life Insurance Proceeds?”

Life insurance death benefits can be paid within 30 days after you submit a claim. To do this, you need a certified death certificate, which is generally issued in less than a week by the funeral home. You should also order plenty of copies (about 15) for closing accounts.

The best use of the money is different for each widow and her unique situation.

Funeral Costs. Use life insurance money to cover these costs to decrease your financial strain.

Ongoing Expenses. When your spouse dies, living expenses do not stop. Your income is frequently reduced. In fact, after the death of a spouse, household income generally declines by about 40% due to changes in Social Security benefits, spouse’s retirement income and earnings. The death benefit from a life insurance policy can help provide the funds you need to help cover your mortgage, car payment, utilities, food, clothing and health care premiums.

Debts. You are generally not personally responsible for paying off the debts of your husband, provided they are in his name alone. When an estate does not have enough funds to pay all the debts, any gifts that were supposed to be paid out to beneficiaries will most likely be reduced. Note that you may be responsible for certain types of debt, such as debt that is jointly owned or a loan that you have co-signed. Talk to an experienced elder law attorney to understand the laws of your state, so that you know where you stand concerning all debts.

Create an Emergency Fund. Life insurance can help build a liquid emergency fund, which should cover three to six months of expenses.

Supplement Your Retirement. When a woman loses her spouse, she becomes much more vulnerable to poverty. To retire, a person typically needs 80% of their preretirement income to live comfortably.

Education. If you are a young widow, the life insurance proceeds can be used to pay for going back to school to augment your earning abilities. These funds could also cover the cost of college for your children. However, you should only save for college educational costs after your retirement savings is secure.

It is up to beneficiary to decide the best uses of life insurance benefits going forward. It is a good idea to consult an estate planning and probate attorney to make sure you have a full grasp of the benefits provided. If you would like to learn more about life insurance and estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Kiplinger (Dec. 17, 2021) “What Is the Best Way for a Widow to Use Life Insurance Proceeds?”

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Several Ways to Avoid Probate

Several Ways to Avoid Probate

Probate can tie up the estate for months and be an added expense. It can be a financial and emotional nightmare if you have not planned ahead. Some states have a streamlined process for less valuable estates, but probate still has delays, extra expense and work for the estate administrator. A probated estate is also a public record anyone can review. There are, however, several ways to avoid probate.

Forbes’ recent article entitled “7 Ways To Avoid Probate Without A Living Trust” says that avoiding probate often is a big estate planning goal. You can structure the estate so that all or most of it passes to your loved ones without this process.

A living trust is the most well-known way to avoid probate. However, retirement accounts, such as IRAs and 401(k)s, avoid probate. The beneficiary designation on file with the account administrator or trustee determines who inherits them. Likewise, life insurance benefits and annuities are distributed to the beneficiaries named in the contract.

Joint accounts and joint title are ways to avoid probate. Married couples can own real estate or financial accounts through joint tenancy with right of survivorship. The surviving spouse automatically takes full title after the other spouse passes away. Non-spouses also can establish joint title, like when a senior creates a joint account with an adult child at a financial institution. The child will automatically inherit the account when the parent passes away without probate. If the parent cannot manage his or her affairs at some point, the child can manage the finances without the need for a power of attorney.

Note that all joint owners have equal rights to the property. A joint owner can take withdrawals without the consent of the other. Once joint title is established you cannot sell, give or dispose of the property without the consent of the other joint owner.

A transfer on death provision (TOD) is another vehicle to avoid probate. You might come across the traditional term Totten trust, which is another name for a TOD or POD account (but there is no trust involved). After the original owner passes away, the TOD account is transferred to the beneficiary or changed to his or her name, once the financial institution gets the death certificate.

You can name multiple beneficiaries and specify the percentage of the account each will inherit. However, beneficiaries under a TOD have no rights in or access to the account while the owner is alive. An estate planning attorney will be able to identify several ways for you to avoid a costly probate. If you would like to read more about probate, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Forbes (March 28, 2022) “7 Ways To Avoid Probate Without A Living Trust”

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Information in our blogs is very general in nature and should not be acted upon without first consulting with an attorney. Please feel free to contact Texas Trust Law to schedule a complimentary consultation.
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