Category: ROTH IRA

holidays are a good time to have a family meeting

Holidays are a good time for a Family Meeting

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Someone Needs to Know Where Your Money Is” recommends that families talk about money with an elderly parent. The holidays are a good time for a family meeting. If it’s really too late, you should know where to find the following:

Get the most recent tax return. This will have the name and contact information of the accountant who prepared the tax return. The tax return will also document income. If you find the income, you can find the assets. The reason is that earned interest, dividends, pension income and withdrawals from retirement accounts will be reported on the tax return. You should also call his or her employer’s human resources department to see if there’s a company life insurance benefit or 401(k) balance.

When a senior is admitted to the hospital, their health can sometimes deteriorate quickly. It’s one example of how everyone needs to have their estate plan updated and make sure their financial affairs are in order at all times. Someone must know all of the financial details and how to access the money, life insurance and other important documents. Here are some actions to consider taking now to ensure this situation doesn’t occur with you or a family member.

Collect key financial documents. During the family meeting, ask your parents to collect copies of the following documents:

  • Their wills;
  • Any trusts;
  • Their financial power of attorney;
  • All bank and brokerage account information;
  • Social Security statements;
  • Their website log-ins for any financial assets and insurance policies;
  • A list of beneficiaries for IRAs, annuities and life insurance policies;
  • A list of any other assets and debts; and
  • Their most recent tax returns.

As you begin gathering these documents, the most crucial one to help uncover current assets is the tax return. It can help describe the parent’s assets and the income they have from pensions, annuities, real estate investments, business interests and Social Security. A Schedule B is filed to report the interest and dividends received each tax year. If you’re unable to locate any paper statements or log-in information to financial websites to track down an asset, ask the tax preparer for a copy of the 1099 form for each asset, so you will know which company to contact.

Make certain key documents are signed. These are a will, financial power of attorney, health care power of attorney and any trust documents. Put these in a safe place, along with a copy of the Social Security card, birth and marriage certificates. You should also provide copies and access to files to people who serve as professional advisers, such as attorneys, accountants, financial planners and insurance agents. In addition, share contents of this collection with your parent’s executor, financial and health care agent and/or another relative who lives nearby. With everyone gathered together, the holidays are a good time to have a family meeting and make sure everyone is on the same page. If you would like to learn more about planning for elderly loved ones, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Kiplinger (Nov. 1, 2021) “Someone Needs to Know Where Your Money Is”

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Estate of The Union Episode 12 is out now!

 

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how to file taxes after your spouse dies

How to file Taxes after your Spouse Dies

Losing a spouse is crushing blow for anyone. A question that quickly comes up is how to file taxes after your spouse dies? About two-thirds of surviving spouses are women. While some are able to avoid major mistakes, taxes are a source of frustration, rife with potential problems. Deadlines are especially challenging, according to the article “The Death of a Spouse is Hard. Taxes Makes It Harder” from The Wall Street Journal.

The combination of emotional upheaval and needing to make complex decisions is overwhelming. Some widows need cash and are forced to sell the family home within two years to get an exemption of $500,000 on the sale proceeds. If you miss the deadline, the exemption shrinks to $250,000.

Others will convert traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs in the year their spouse dies, to capture lowered taxes on the conversion.

However, in all cases, spouses need to check withholding or estimated taxes, especially if the spouse who died was the one who made payments to the IRS. Underpayment penalties add up fast.

Here are some key things to watch for:

Filing an estate tax return. The current estate and gift-tax exemption is $11.7 million per person, so most people don’t need to pay federal estate tax. Executors don’t need to file a return if the decedent’s estate is below exemption levels. However, they should. Here’s why: filing an estate tax return will allow the surviving spouse to have the partner’s unused exemption and add it to their own. Claiming the unused exemption could have larger implications in the future when exemptions change.

Estate taxes are normally due nine months after the date of death. The IRS allows executors to claim the unused exemption for the spouse up to two years after the date of death, but the estate tax must be filed within the time period.

The year a spouse dies is the last year a couple may file jointly. Afterwards, the survivor files as a single person or if there are dependent children, as a surviving widow or widower. Be careful about the shift from joint to single filer. The surviving spouse’s tax rate may stay the same or rise when their income drops. There’s an expression for this, as it occurs so often: the widow’s penalty.

Surviving spouses may roll over inherited retirement accounts into their own names. However, if there is a significant age difference, this may not be the best strategy. New widows and widowers should consider their options carefully.

Filers must send the IRS 90% of their total tax for the year by December 31. This amount is often divided unequally between spouses. If the partner who died paid most of the withholding for estimated taxes, the survivor may need to make changes or risk underpayment penalties when taxes are paid in April. This is especially likely to occur if the spouse died early in the year. Sit down with an experienced estate planning attorney who can help you file taxes after your spouse dies. If you would like to learn more about probate, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: The Wall Street Journal (Oct. 29, 2021) “The Death of a Spouse is Hard. Taxes Makes It Harder”

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Plan carefully before withdrawing retirement funds

Plan Carefully before withdrawing Retirement Funds

As much as 70% of your retirement funds could evaporate after income tax, estate and state taxes, says a recent article titled “9 smart ways to withdraw retirement funds,” from Bankrate.com. While this number may sound extreme, a closer look shows how easily it could happen, even to families who are well under today’s high federal estate tax exemptions. It is wise to plan carefully before withdrawing retirement funds. Here’s how to avoid this minefield.

Watch the rules on RMDs—Required Minimum Distributions. Once you turn 72, you’re required to start taking a minimum amount from tax-deferred retirement accounts, including traditional IRAs and 401(k)s. The penalty for failing to do so is severe: a 50% excise tax. If you get the math wrong and don’t take out enough money, the penalty is just as bad. Let’s say your RMD is $20,000 but somehow you only take $5,000. The IRS will levy a $7,500 tax bill: half the $15,000 you were supposed to pay. Ouch!

When you calculate your RMD, remember it changes from year to year. The RMD is based on your age, life-expectancy and account balance, which is the fair market value of the assets in your accounts on December 31 the year before you take a distribution.

Take withdrawals from accounts in the right order. Which retirement funds should you withdraw from first? A Roth IRA will be tax free but use taxable accounts first and leave the Roths for later. Here’s why.

If a 72-year-old person takes $18,000 from a traditional IRA in the 24% tax bracket, their tax bill will be $4,320. The same withdrawal from a Roth IRA won’t create any tax liability. However, if they leave the Roth alone and earn 7% annually on the $18,000 for another ten years, it could grow to $35,409, which will also be tax free when withdrawn. It’s worth the wait.

Do you know the way to take distributions? Most Americans have had several jobs and have retirement accounts in different institutions. It may be time to consolidate assets into one IRA. This can make it much easier to calculate future withdrawals, tax liabilities and asset allocation. Plan carefully before withdrawing, you may need help from your estate planning attorney. You can’t take withdrawals from an IRA to meet RMD requirements for 403(b)s, 401(k)s or other plans. 401(k) plans may not be pooled to calculate a single RMD. Handle any consolidations with great care to avoid incurring tax penalties.

RMDs are different in some situations. If one spouse is significantly younger than the other, RMDs might be lowered. RMDs are calculated using factors like life expectancy (as determined by IRS tables). If a spouse is the sole beneficiary of an IRA, and they are at least ten years younger than you, the RMD calculation is done using a joint-life expectancy table. The amount of the RMD will be reduced according to the table.

Charitable contributions count. People aged 70½ or older are permitted to make tax free donations, known as qualified charitable distributions, of up to $100,000 to a charity as part of their RMD. This distribution does not count as income, reducing income tax to the donor. If you file a joint return, a spouse may also make a contribution up to $100,000. You can’t itemize these as a charitable deduction, but it’s a good way to minimize taxes.

Withdrawals don’t have to be cash. RMDs can be stocks or bonds, which are assigned a fair-market value on the date they are moved from the IRA to a taxable account. This may be easier and less expensive than triggering fees by selling securities in an IRA and then buying them back in a brokerage account.

Can you delay RMDs if you’re still working? If you’re still working at age 72 and continuing to fund a 401(k) or 403(b), you can delay taking RMDs, as long as you don’t own more than 5% of a company and your retirement plan permits this. Check with the 401(k) custodian or human resources to be sure this is allowable to avoid expensive penalties.

Smart money management is just as important in taking money from your retirement accounts as it is in building those accounts. Plan carefully before withdrawing retirement funds. Make informed decisions to maximize your savings and minimize taxes.

If you would like to read more about retirement accounts and estate planning, please check out our previous posts. 

Reference: Bankrate.com (Aug. 31, 2021) “9 smart ways to withdraw retirement funds”

The Estate of The Union Episode 9 out now

 

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how to handle an inherited IRA

How to Handle an Inherited IRA

You can’t leave the money in an original IRA inherited from the deceased. There are several ways you can take the funds after inheriting either a traditional or Roth IRA. However, your options will be restricted by several factors. Note that failure to handle an inherited IRA properly can lead to a significant penalty from the IRS.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “I Inherited an IRA. Now What?” says you should understand what type of beneficiary you are under the new SECURE Act, what options are available to you and how they fit into your tax and investment profile.

There are several different ways to handle an inherited IRA. The first step after being left an IRA is getting the details about the account. This includes whether it’s a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA. Unlike Roth IRAs, traditional IRAs require the owner to take minimum withdrawals or “Required Minimum Distributions” (RMDs), when they turn 72. As a result, if the original account owner was older than 72 when they died, be certain that the RMD has been taken for the year. If not, there’s a potentially significant IRS penalty. You should also identify when the account was opened. This may exempt you from taxes later on, if you inherited a Roth IRA. It is also recommended that you verify that you are the sole beneficiary.

Spousal Heirs Can Transfer the Funds to a New IRA. Spousal heirs can transfer the assets from the original owner’s account to their own existing or a new IRA. You can do this even if the deceased was over 72 and was taking RMDs from a traditional IRA. With your existing or new account, you can delay RMDs until you reach 72. You can also complete this type of transfer with a Roth. Since these accounts don’t require RMDs, you don’t need to worry about withdrawals. This is a good option for beneficiaries who are younger than their deceased spouses and don’t need the income at that point. Transferring the funds to your own traditional IRA lets you delay taking RMDs. However, if you’d like to withdraw the funds from the new IRA before you are 59½, you’ll be subject to the 10% early-withdrawal penalty.

Spousal Stretch IRA. Spousal heirs who inherit either a traditional or a Roth IRA can transfer the assets into an inherited IRA, which is different than a spousal transfer. The original account owner’s financial institution will require you to open the inherited IRA with them, but you can also move the funds to a new institution. First, open an inherited IRA at the original owner’s institution and then open an inherited IRA at the institution to which you want to move the account. Request a direct IRA-to-IRA transfer. When titling the account, follow the format: “[Decedent’s Full Name], for benefit of [Beneficiary’s Full Name]” or “[Beneficiary’s Full Name], as beneficiary of [Decedent’s Full Name].”

Once you have a handle on the inherited IRA, you can withdraw the funds in two ways: (i) the life expectancy method is where you take annual distributions based on your own life expectancy, not the original owner’s (also known as a “stretch IRA”); or (ii) the 10-year method, where you must withdraw all funds within 10 years.

Non-Spousal Heirs Have Limited Choices. The SECURE Act of 2019 got rid of the stretch IRA for non-spousal heirs who inherit the account on or after Jan. 1, 2020. The funds from the inherited IRA – either a Roth or a traditional IRA – must be distributed within 10 years of the original owner passing away, even if the deceased person died before or after the year in which they reach age 72. There are exceptions, such as when the heir is a minor, disabled, or more than a decade younger than the original account owner. In these cases, they can withdraw the funds using the stretch IRA method.

If you’re required to take out the funds within 10 years, you don’t need to withdraw a certain amount of money each year from an inherited IRA. You can leave the funds to grow in the account tax deferred the entire time and then withdraw the funds at the end. However, if you withdraw too much in one year, it could move you into a higher tax bracket.

Lump Sum. All beneficiaries can take the funds in one large distribution, either from a traditional or Roth IRA. However, this is generally discouraged for those with traditional IRAs because they’ll have to pay income taxes on the distribution all at once and may move to a higher tax bracket.

Plan for Taxes. If you inherit a Roth IRA, you shouldn’t have to pay taxes on distributions if the original account was opened at least five years ago, or a conversion from a traditional IRA to a Roth occurred at least five years ago. Determine when the original account was opened to see if some of the distribution will be taxable. Make sure you know how to handle an inherited IRA. Talk with an estate planning attorney today.

If you would like to read more about IRAs and other retirement accounts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Kiplinger (Aug. 4, 2021) “I Inherited an IRA. Now What?”

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Managing financial issues after death of a spouse

Managing Financial issues after Death of Spouse

Managing financial issues that arise after the death of a spouse range from the simple—figuring out how to access online bill payment for utilities—to the complex—understanding estate and inheritance taxes. The first year after the death of a spouse is a time when surviving spouses are often fragile and vulnerable. It’s not the time to make any major financial or life decisions, says the article “The Financial Effects of Losing a Spouse” from Yahoo! Finance.

Tax implications following the death of a spouse. A drop in household income often means the surviving spouse needs to withdraw money from retirement accounts. While taxes may be lowered because of the drop in income, withdrawals from IRAs and 401(k)s that are not Roth accounts are taxable. However, less income might mean that the surviving spouse’s income is low enough to qualify for certain tax deductions or credits that otherwise they would not be eligible for.

Surviving spouses eventually have a different filing status. As long as the surviving spouse has not remarried in the year of death of their spouse, they are permitted to file a federal joint tax return. This may be an option for two more years, if there is a dependent child. However, after that, taxes must be filed as a single taxpayer, which means tax rates are not as favorable as they are for a couple filing jointly. The standard deduction is also lowered for a single person.

If the spouse inherits a traditional IRA, the surviving spouse may elect to be designated as the account owner, roll funds into their own retirement account, or be treated as a beneficiary. Which option is chosen will impact both the required minimum distribution (RMD) and the surviving spouse’s taxable income. If the spouse decides to become the designated owner of the original account or rolls the account into their own IRA, they may take RMDs based on their own life expectancy. If they chose the beneficiary route, RMDs are based on the life expectancy of the deceased spouse. Most people opt to roll the IRA into their own IRA or transfer it into an account in their own name.

The surviving spouse receives a stepped-up basis in other inherited property. If the assets are held jointly between spouses, there’s a step up in one half of the basis. However, if the asset was owned solely by the deceased spouse, the step up is 100%. In community property states, the total fair market value of property, including the portion that belongs to the surviving spouse, becomes the basis for the entire property, if at least half of its value is included in the deceased spouse’s gross estate. Your estate planning attorney will help prepare for this beforehand, or help you navigate this issue after the death of a spouse.

It should be noted there is a special rule that helps surviving spouses who wish to sell their home. Up to $250,000 of gain from the sale of a principal residence is tax-free, if certain conditions are met. The exemption increases to $500,000 for married couples filing a joint return, but a surviving spouse who has not remarried may still claim the $500,000 exemption, if the home is sold within two years of the spouses’ passing.

There is an unlimited marital deduction in addition to the current $11.7 million estate tax exemption. If the deceased’s estate is not near that amount, the surviving spouse should file form 706 to elect portability of their deceased spouse’s unused exemption. This protects the surviving spouse if the exemption is lowered, which may happen in the near future. If you don’t file in a timely manner, you’ll lose this exemption, so don’t neglect this task. Managing financial issues after the death of your spouse can be overwhelming. Work closely with an experienced estate planning attorney who is familiar with complex financial issues related to probate.

If you would like to read more about issues related to probate, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Yahoo! Finance (July 16, 2021) “The Financial Effects of Losing a Spouse”

 

Roth IRA a good choice for retirement

Roth IRA a Good Choice for Retirement

While it may seem like only the ultra-wealthy benefit from a Roth IRA, this retirement tool is an excellent tax shelter that anyone can use, reports CNBC.com in the recent article “The ultra-wealthy have made full use of Roth individual retirement accounts. Here’s how you can do the same.” One of PayPal’s founders, Peter Thiel, had $5 billion in a Roth IRA as of 2019, according to a ProPublica report. It said that he used a self-directed Roth account, which allows the owner to hold alternative assets, like shares in a private company or real estate that generally can’t be placed in a regular Roth. A Roth IRA is a good choice for retirement income.

Traditional 401(k) plans and IRAs offer a tax break, when contributions are made. Taxes are paid upon withdrawal, which is supposed to happen only after a certain age when you’ve retired. By contrast, the Roth versions of the 401(k) and IRA don’t have the tax break up front—you have to pay taxes on the money or assets when making contributions—but there are no taxes paid upon withdrawal, and there are no required withdrawals, as there are with a traditional IRA and 401(k)s.

You pay income taxes on the money placed into the account, and then it grows tax free. You can take it out anytime, as long as the account has been owned for at least five years and you are age 59½ or older. Self-directed Roth IRAs permit tax-free growth and untaxed distributions plus investments can be made that are not available in regular Roth accounts.

Theil had private company shares in his self-directed Roth IRA, before PayPal was a publicly traded company. He benefited from both timing and savvy investment skills.

A self-directed Roth IRA is generally available only through specialized custodians. Brand-name financial companies don’t offer them. The custodians that hold self-directed IRAs do not manage the account or police what investments are placed into the accounts, so you’ll need the advice of a tax-savvy estate planning attorney to be sure you are following the rules. Note that there can also be valuation issues. The value of alternative assets is not as clear as publicly traded securities. You’ll need to get the value right, so you don’t break any tax laws. Once assets are in the account, you can sell them and use the proceeds to purchase other instruments in the account, all under the same tax-free Roth protection.

Even if you don’t use a self-directed Roth IRA, the standard Roth IRA yields many benefits. We don’t know what the future tax environment will be, but tax-free withdrawals in the future, combined with high-growth assets, make the Roth IRA a good choice for retirement nest eggs.

If you would like to read more about Roth IRAs and other retirement accounts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: CNBC.com (June 24, 2021) “The ultra-wealthy have made full use of Roth individual retirement accounts. Here’s how you can do the same”

Episode 6 of The Estate of The Union podcast is out now

 

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Who inherits IRA if the Beneficiary passes?

Who Inherits IRA if the Beneficiary Passes?

Retirement accounts need to have beneficiary designations to determine who inherits the funds when you pass. But who inherits an IRA if the beneficiary passes? Which estate would get the IRA when a non-spouse beneficiary inherits an IRA account but dies before the money is put in her name with no contingent beneficiaries can be complicated, says nj.com in the recent article entitled “Who gets this inherited IRA after the beneficiary dies?”

IRAs are usually transferred by a decedent through a beneficiary designation form.

As a review, a designated beneficiary is an individual who inherits an asset like the balance of an IRA after the death of the asset’s owner. The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act has restricted the rules for designated beneficiaries for required withdrawals from inherited retirement accounts.

Under the SECURE Act, a designated beneficiary is a person named as a beneficiary on a retirement account and who does not fall into one of five categories of individuals classified as an eligible designated beneficiary. The designated beneficiary must be a living person. While estates, most trusts, and charities can inherit retirement assets, they are considered to be a non-designated beneficiary for the purposes of determining required withdrawals.

Provided there is a named beneficiary, and the named beneficiary survived the owner of the IRA account, the named beneficiary inherits the account.

The executor or administrator of the beneficiary’s estate would be entitled to open an inherited IRA for the beneficiary because the beneficiary did not have the opportunity to open it before he or she passed away.

Next is the question of who inherits the IRA from the named beneficiary if she passes before naming her own beneficiary.

In that instance, the financial institution’s IRA plan documents would determine the beneficiary when no one is named. These rules usually say that it goes to the spouse or the estate of the deceased beneficiary.

If you are interested in learning more about beneficiary designations, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: nj.com (June 1, 2021) “Who gets this inherited IRA after the beneficiary dies?”

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consider taking RMDs at regular intervals

Consider taking RMDs at regular Intervals

There have been a number of changes to the requirements for RMDs—Required Minimum Distributions—from traditional retirement accounts, says a recent article titled “2 Essential Strategies for Taking Your RMDs” from Kiplinger. In 2019, the age for RMDs was raised from 70½ to 72. In 2020, they were waived altogether because of the pandemic. Now they’re back, and you want to know how to make good decisions about them. You might consider taking RMDs at regular intervals.

Most people take the default approach, taking a lump sum of cash at the start or the end of the year. This is not the best approach. Investment markets and your own need for income are better indicators for how and when to take your RMD. If you can at all avoid it, never take an RMD from a declining market.

You can take your RMD anytime during the calendar year, from January 1 to December 31. If it’s the first time you’ve taken an RMD, you get a bonus: you can wait until April 1 of the year after your 72nd birthday. The RMD is calculated, by dividing the account balance on December 31 of the preceding year by your life expectancy factor, based on your age. You can find it in the IRS’s Uniform Lifetime Table.

2021 distributions will be bigger, and not just because of the market’s 2020 performance. Instead, distributions will be bigger because of how the accounts are designed, with RMDs becoming a larger percentage over time. It starts as a small percentage and eventually becomes the entire account, which is then depleted. Remember, the sole purpose of the RMD is to force retirees to take money out of their retirement accounts and pay taxes on the money.

Many retirees take RMDs because they need the money to live on. Here’s where money management gets tricky. It’s far easier to take smaller amounts of money at regular intervals, kind of like a paycheck, than taking a big amount once a year. We’re creatures of habit and are used to receiving income and managing it that way.

Distributions on a regular basis also fosters a better sense of how much money you have to live on, encouraging you to create and adhere to a budget.

If you don’t need the income, consider taking RMDs at regular intervals. It’s like the opposite of dollar-cost averaging. Instead of putting money into the market in small increments over time to even out market ups and downs, you’re taking money out of the market at regular intervals. You’re not cashing out at the market’s lowest point, or at the highest. And if you’re reinvesting RMDs in a taxable account, this strategy works especially well.

If you would like to learn more about RMDs and other topics related to retirement accounts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Kiplinger (June 10, 2021) “2 Essential Strategies for Taking Your RMDs”

New Episode of The Estate of The Union Podcast

 

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Information in our blogs is very general in nature and should not be acted upon without first consulting with an attorney. Please feel free to contact The Wiewel Law Firm to schedule a complimentary consultation.
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