Category: Financial Planning

Take Care when using a Self-Directed IRA

Take Care when using a Self-Directed IRA

For some people, a self-directed IRA could be a great vehicle in which to invest tax-advantaged retirement funds in real property. However, there are rules governing everything from property ownership and usage to how you cover expenses and take profits. If they aren’t followed, you can easily run afoul of the IRS. Take care when using a self-directed IRA.

Forbes’ recent article entitled “How To Use A Self-Directed IRA For Real Estate Investing” explains that a real estate IRA is just another name for a self-directed IRA that’s designed to hold investment property. You can own a wide range of property types in a real estate IRA. This includes land, single and multi-family homes, international property, boat docks, commercial properties and more. Because this is a type of self-directed IRA, the custodian—the company safeguarding your account and enforcing IRS regulations—allows you to hold alternative asset classes, like real estate.

First, find a custodian that allows or even specializes in real estate IRAs. Next, you need to fund your account—typically with a rollover from an existing IRA. With your cash in place, you can buy real estate and have it titled in the name of your IRA. You can finance real estate in your IRA with an investment property-specific mortgage. You can then pay the mortgage using additional cash from your self-directed IRA. When you sell a property held in a real estate IRA, the funds stay in the account. Depending on the type of IRA you’ve selected, those funds grow tax-deferred (traditional IRA) or tax-free (Roth IRA).

A real estate IRA allows you to diversify away from stocks and bonds. However, there are many rules governing this specialized type of account. Let’s look at some of the key rules you must know:

Property Title. Real estate that is held in a self-directed IRA is owned by the account, rather than by you personally. Therefore, the title documents that confirm ownership of the property are in the name of your IRA, rather than in your name.

Expenses and Income. All expenses and income flow into and out of your real estate IRA. All property taxes, utility bills and other expenses are paid by your account. All rental income or other income is paid back into your account.

Limitations on Use. Real estate held in a self-directed IRA can only be an investment property. You and any member of your family—plus any of your beneficiaries or fiduciaries—are referred to as disqualified persons. Since the purpose of an IRA is retirement investing, these disqualified persons can’t make use of the real estate assets.

No DIY. If you need to fix up or repair property held in a real estate IRA, the account must pay for the work. It can’t be performed by a disqualified person (you).

Prior Property Ownership. You can’t sell, lease, or exchange property you already own to your real estate IRA. That’s called “self-dealing,” which the IRS strictly prohibits.

Watch Out for the UBIT. If you take out a loan that’s secured by the property itself (a non-recourse loan), you will be required to pay unrelated business income tax (UBIT) on any profits related to the financed portion. However, you can use depreciation and operating costs to reduce your tax bill, which can allow you to reduce your UBIT or eliminate it altogether.

A self-directed IRA can be a wonderful tool to utilize retirement funds for real estate, but take care when using it. If you would like to learn more about retirement accounts and estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Forbes (Feb. 13, 2023) “How To Use A Self-Directed IRA For Real Estate Investing”

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Corporate Transparency Act May Impact Estate Planning

Corporate Transparency Act May Impact Estate Planning

A recent federal law, the Corporate Transparency Act may have a have an impact on your estate planning. The law mandates reporting to the government that may affect many of those who’ve done estate planning, asset protection planning, or own real estate. Forbes’s recent article entitled “Corporate Transparency Act Affects Your Estate Plan” explains that, while users of this information are supposed to be carefully limited to governing agencies, its breadth and disclosures, may seem invasive.

The goal of the new legislation is to wade through the entity formalities and find out who truly owns the company and its assets. The Act is part of a growing worldwide effort to thwart illegal activities, including tax evasion, money-laundering, tax fraud and other financial crimes.

This type of reporting is new to the U.S. The rules are quite different than anything that’s been around in the past. The law is designed to have the U.S. catch up to the reporting standards common in other developed countries. These reporting requirements are very different from tax returns.

The CTA reporting requirements could affect the owners or principals behind or involved in almost all business entities. This includes limited liability companies (LLCs), corporations, limited partnerships and other closely held entities. Most of the entities created as part of your planning may be subjected to the new rules:

  • Investment planning might include forming a holding company to aggregate securities and other investments. A small business or a rental real estate property are typically segregated into separate entities to avoid a domino effect, if there is a lawsuit involving the underlying asset.
  • Your estate plan might include the creation of one or more LLCs designed to hold other assets or even other entities to facilitate trust funding or trust administration. A family limited partnership might be created to hold investment assets for management or estate tax valuation discount purposes.
  • If you’re doing asset protection planning, an experienced estate planning attorney may help you to form different entities to insulate the underlying assets from claims of creditors.

Experts say there could be more than 30 million entities that will be required to file. Work closely with your estate planning attorney to see how the corporate transparency act may impact your estate planning. If you would like to learn more about the LLCs and business planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Forbes (Feb. 26, 2023) “Corporate Transparency Act Affects Your Estate Plan”

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How to Avoid Common IRA Errors

How to Avoid Common IRA Errors

To help you sidestep some of the most common blunders and get the most out of your IRA investments, Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Don’t Make These Common IRA Mistakes” points out how to avoid the most common IRA errors.

Not Planning for the “Second Half”. It’s really about two halves. You accumulate wealth in the first half and withdraw it in the second. Many people only play the first half of the game: they focus only on saving as much as possible in their IRA account. However, with retirement saving, it’s not how much you have. It’s how much you can keep after taxes.

Converting to a Roth All at Once. If you think your tax rate will be higher when you retire than it is right now, converting a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA this year might be smart. In the end, the total tax you owe on those funds may be lower by taking that step. However, a Roth conversion has a tax bill on your next return. The “mistake” those people sometimes make is thinking they have to convert the entire account at once. Instead, you can do partial conversions.

Exceeding Roth IRA Income Limits. There are annual contributions limits for both traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs. However, for Roth IRAs only, there are also income limits. If you’re single, the amount you can contribute to a Roth IRA account in 2022 is gradually reduced to zero, if your modified adjusted gross income is between $129,000 and $144,000 ($204,000 to $214,000 for joint filers).

Doing Indirect Rollovers. Many people have trouble when they attempt to move money from one retirement account to another. If you take money out of an IRA account and the check is in your name, you only have 60 days to roll that money over into another retirement account before the withdrawn funds are deemed taxable income. This is an indirect rollover. For IRA-to-IRA transfers, you can only do one indirect rollover per year.

Forgetting to Account for All RMDs. You must start taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) when you reach 72. Some people miss an RMD or don’t take it for all of their accounts subject to the RMD rules. Other people miscalculate and don’t withdraw enough money. These can be costly mistakes, because you could be hit with a stiff penalty for violating the RMD rules.

These are simply the most common IRA errors to avoid, but there can be additional issues that you need to be aware of. Take the time out to consult with your financial advisor and your estate planning attorney to make sure you are covered. If you would like to learn more about retirement accounts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Kiplinger (July 25, 2022) “Don’t Make These Common IRA Mistakes”

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Secure 2.0 Act has new features

SECURE 2.0 Act has New Features

SECURE 2.0 Act of 2022 is an extension of the original SECURE Act, which was enacted in 2019, reports Forbes’ recent article, entitled “SECURE 2.0 Passes—Here’s What It Means To Your Retirement.” An American Retirement Association press release notes the Secure 2.0 Act has new features including:

  • A Starter 401(k)—that could provide more than 19 million new American workers with access to the workplace-based retirement system through a brand new super simple, safe harbor 401(k) plan
  • A 100% tax credit for new plans to incentivize the creation of new workplace retirement programs by small businesses; and
  • A Saver’s Match Program that would incentivize retirement savings by giving a 50% match on up to $2,000 in retirement savings annually for lower- and middle-income Americans.

About 108 million Americans would be eligible for the Saver’s Match that would be directly deposited into their retirement account—upping the savings of moderate-income earners.

“We are grateful to the many members of Congress and staff who worked tirelessly to get SECURE 2.0 included in the omnibus legislation enacted this week,” noted Brian Graff, CEO of the American Retirement Association in Washington, DC.

“This important legislation will enhance the retirement security of tens of millions of American workers—and for many of them, give them the opportunity for the first time to begin saving.”

The Pension Protection Act of 2006 first introduced the concept of automatic 401(k) enrollment. This shifted the then-current 401(k) practice of requiring workers to opt-in before being allowed to participate in their company’s 401(k) plan to requiring them to opt-out only if they did not want to participate.

The new legislation now has a number of provisions meant to encourage companies to create retirement savings plans for their workers.

For older workers who find themselves behind in their savings, SECURE 2.0 grants them higher “catch-up” provisions. The new features in the Secure 2.0 Act may be a benefit to you or your loved ones. If you would like to learn more about the SECURE Act, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Forbes (Dec. 23, 2022) “SECURE 2.0 Passes—Here’s What It Means To Your Retirement”

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The Estate of The Union Season 2|Episode 5 is out now!

The Estate of The Union Season 2|Episode 5 is out now!

Happy New Year! To kick off the first episode of 2023, host Brad Wiewel, sits down to discuss the Corporate Transparency Act and how it relates to trusts.

There is a Bad Moon Rising (to quote Creedence Clearwater Revival). The bad moon is the Corporate Transparency Act which is going to REQUIRE all LLCs, corporations and Limited Partnerships to register with the federal government! The law becomes effective January 1, 2024.

This podcast focuses on some of the provisions of the new law and the consequences and penalties for failure to comply. It is a MUST LISTEN if you or someone you know or work with has an entity, because this is SERIOUS STUFF!

In the podcast we mention that we have a new service we are providing called Business Shield . It is designed to maintain entities and keep them in compliance with both state, and now federal law. Simply click on Business Shield™ to be taken to the page on our website. Please let us know if you would like to discuss Business Shield™ with us and we’ll be happy to schedule a complimentary phone consultation with one of our attorneys.

In each episode of The Estate of The Union podcast, host and lawyer Brad Wiewel will give valuable insights into the confusing world of estate planning, making an often daunting subject easier to understand. It is Estate Planning Made Simple! The Estate of The Union Season 2|Episode 5 is out now! The episode can be found on Spotify, Apple podcasts, or anywhere you get your podcasts. If you would prefer to watch the video version, please visit our YouTube page. Please click on the link below to listen to the new installment of The Estate of The Union podcast. We hope you enjoy it.

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Texas Trust Law focuses its practice exclusively in the area of wills, probate, estate planning, asset protection, and special needs planning. Brad Wiewel is Board Certified in Estate Planning and Probate Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization. We provide estate planning services, asset protection planning, business planning, and retirement exit strategies.

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A Joint and Survivor Annuity is an Option

A Joint and Survivor Annuity is an Option

A joint and survivor annuity is an option to consider for some spouses. An annuity is a contract between an investor and a life insurance company. The purchaser of an annuity pays a lump-sum or several installments to the insurer, which then provides a guaranteed income for a certain period—or until their death.

Forbes’ recent article entitled “What Is A Joint And Survivor Annuity?” says that understanding an “annuitant” is key to understanding how a joint and survivor annuity works. An annuitant may be either the buyer or owner of an annuity or someone who’s been selected to get the annuity payouts. A joint and survivor annuity typically benefits joint annuitants: a primary annuitant and a secondary annuitant. Under this policy, both get income payments during the lifetimes of both the annuity owner and their survivor.

With joint life annuity, you can expect payments throughout the lifetime of the primary annuitant. If that person passes away, the survivor—the other annuitant—receives payouts that are the same as or less than what the original annuitant received. However, if the secondary annuitant dies ahead of the primary annuitant, survivor benefits aren’t paid when the primary annuity dies. The annuity buyer can designate themselves and another person, like their spouse, as joint annuitants.

A joint and survivor annuity differs from a single life annuity in a few ways:

  • A single-life annuity benefits only the annuity owner, so income payouts cease when that person dies; and
  • A single-life annuity usually pays out less than a joint and survivor annuity, since a single-life annuity covers just one life, while a joint and survivor covers two.

Under some joint and survivor annuities, the amount of the payout is decreased after the death of the primary annuitant. The terms of any decrease are set out in the annuity contract.

The payout to a surviving secondary annuitant, generally a spouse or domestic partner, ranges from 50% to 100% of the amount paid during the primary annuitant’s life, if the annuity was bought through certain tax-qualified retirement plans.

A joint and survivor annuity is an option to consider, but you need to ask these three questions before setting one up:

  • How much in payout is needed for both annuitants to support themselves?
  • Do you have other assets (like a life insurance policy) to help the surviving joint annuitant after one of the annuitants dies?
  • How much would the payouts be lessened after the death of a joint annuitant?

Remember that you usually can’t change the survivor named in a joint and survivor annuity. If you are interested in learning more about annuities in estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Forbes (Dec. 19, 2022) “What Is A Joint And Survivor Annuity?”

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Preparing an estate inventory is critical

Preparing an Estate Inventory is Critical

The executor’s job includes gathering all of the assets, determining the value and ownership of real estate, securities, bank accounts and any other assets and filing a formal inventory with the probate court. Preparing an estate inventory is critical to having a smooth probate. Every state has its own rules, forms and deadline for the process, says a recent article from yahoo! Finance titled “What Do I Need to Do to Prepare an Estate Inventory for Probate,” which recommends contacting a local estate planning attorney to get it right.

The inventory is used to determine the overall value of the estate. It’s also used to determine whether the estate is solvent, when compared to any claims of creditors for taxes, mortgages, or other debts. The inventory will also be used to calculate any estate or inheritance taxes owed by the estate to the state or federal government.

What is an estate asset? Anything anyone owned at the time of their death is the short answer. This includes:

  • Real estate: houses, condos, apartments, investment properties
  • Financial accounts: checking, savings, money market accounts
  • Investments: brokerage accounts, certificates of deposits, stocks, bonds
  • Retirement accounts: 401(k)s, HSAs, traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, pensions
  • Wages: Unpaid wages, unpaid commissions, un-exercised stock options
  • Insurance policies: life insurance or annuities
  • Vehicles: cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats
  • Business interests: any business holdings or partnerships
  • Debts/judgments: any personal loans to people or money received through court judgments

Preparing an estate inventory is critical for probate, but it may take some time. If the decedent hasn’t created an inventory and shared it with the executor, which would be the ideal situation, the executor may spend a great deal of time searching through desk drawers and filing cabinets and going through the mail for paper financial statements, if they exist.

If the estate includes real property owned in several states, this process becomes even more complex, as each state will require a separate probate process.

The court will not accept a simple list of items. For example, an inventory entry for real property will need to include the address, legal description of the property, copy of the deed and a fair market appraisal of the property by a professional appraiser.

Once all the assets are identified, the executor may need to use a state-specific inventory form for probate inventories. When completed, the executor files it with the probate court. An experienced estate planning attorney will be familiar with the process and be able to speed the process along without the learning curve needed by an inexperienced layperson.

Deadlines for filing the inventory also vary by state. Some probate judges may allow extensions, while other may not.

The executor has a fiduciary responsibility to the beneficiaries of the estate to file the inventory without delay. The executor is also responsible for paying off any debts or taxes and overseeing the distribution of any remaining assets to beneficiaries. It’s a large task, and one that will benefit from the help of an experienced estate planning attorney. If you would like to learn more about probate, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: yahoo! finance (Dec. 3, 2022) “What Do I Need to Do to Prepare an Estate Inventory for Probate”

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Avoid Leaving Residual Assets Behind

Avoid Leaving Residual Assets Behind

This is also known as estate residue or residual estate. It simply means the assets left over after a will has been read, assets have been distributed to heirs and any final expenses have been paid. An estate planning attorney can help avoid leaving residual assets behind, with a comprehensive estate plan, reports a recent article titled “How to Write a Residuary Estate Clause in a Will” from yahoo!

A will is a legal document used to name guardians for minor children and providing directions for how you want assets to be distributed when you pass. Any assets not included in your will or distributed through a trust automatically become part of the residuary estate on your death.

This can happen deliberately or unintentionally. For example, your will can state your wishes to have certain assets left to certain people. However, your will could also include a residual estate clause explaining what should happen to any assets not already named in the will. In this case, you’re intentionally creating a residual estate, and planning for it at the time of the will’s creation.

Some residual estates are created without advance planning. Here’s how that happens:

  • If you forget to include assets in your will.
  • If you acquired new assets after drafting a will and do not add a codicil making provision for the distribution of the assets.
  • Someone named in the will dies before you or is unable to receive the inheritance you left for them.

This can also happen if you set up a Payable On Death (POD) account but neglect to add a beneficiary to the account. Any funds in the account would be lumped into the residual estate.

What happens if you draft a will and don’t have a residuary estate clause? Any unclaimed or overlooked assets will be distributed, according to your state’s inheritance guidelines. However, this is only done after any estate taxes, outstanding debts or final expenses have been paid. Assets would be distributed as if you did not have a will. Heirs at law would receive assets according to kinship, including spouse, children, parents, siblings and other relatives.

How does a trust work in relation to a residual estate? Trusts are legal entities allowing you to transfer assets to a trustee. The trustee is responsible for managing assets on behalf of the trust for beneficiaries according to your wishes. You may want to establish a trust if you have a substantial estate, want to plan for a family member with special needs or if you wish to create a charitable giving legacy.

Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney to avoid leaving residual assets behind. Your attorney will determine whether your will should have a residual clause and what assets should be included. They will also be able to determine whether you need additional estate planning strategies, including a revocable living trust. If you would like to learn more about drafting a Will or Trust, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: yahoo! (Dec. 4, 2022) “How to Write a Residuary Estate Clause in a Will”

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How Charitable Giving can Benefit the Giver

How Charitable Giving can Benefit the Giver

A charitable donation tax deduction feels good in a few ways. Not only do you feel good about giving to a good cause, but charitable giving can also benefit the giver. However, before you start writing checks or making online donations, you should know what rules to follow to ensure your good-hearted gifting is giving you tax deductions, explains the article “Charitable Donation Tax Deductions: An Additional Reward for the Gift of Giving” from Kiplinger.

First, you’ll need to itemize to claim a charitable tax deduction. If you took the standard deduction on your 2020 or 2021 tax return, you could also claim up to $300 for cash donations to charity. This deduction wasn’t available to taxpayers who claimed itemized deductions on Schedule A. This deduction wasn’t extended past 2021, so you can’t claim a charitable donation tax deduction on your 2022 tax return. For 2022 and beyond, you’ll have to itemize if you want to write off gifts to charity.

If your standard deduction is a little higher than your itemized deduction, consolidate charitable deductions from the next few years into the current tax years, known as “bunching.” This lets you boost your itemized deductions for the current year, so they exceed your standard deduction amount. Consider using a Donor Advised Fund, where you can make one large contribution to a fund and deduct the entire amount as an itemized deduction in the year you make it. Just be sure your donations align with your estate plan.

How do you know what donations are deductible? Contributions of cash or property are generally deductible. If you donate property, the deduction is equal to the property’s fair market value. If you give appreciated property, you may have to reduce the fair market value by the amount of appreciation when calculating the deduction. If the property has decreased, your deduction is limited to the current fair market value.

There are certain requirements and limitations for charitable tax deductions. For gifts of $250 or more, you must have a written acknowledgment from the charity stating the amount of a cash donation and a description of any donated property, but not value, and whether or not you received any goods or services in return for your contribution. At certain valuation points, you’ll need to file certain forms and if you donate a car, boat, or airplane worth more than $5,000, you may need to have the property appraised also.

Just because your donation was used for a good cause doesn’t mean you can deduct it. Only contributions to certain charitable organizations are deductible. For instance, if a neighbor starts a Go Fund Me page, those donations, while greatly appreciated, are not tax deductible.

The IRS makes it easy to determine if any donations are tax deductible with the Tax Exempt Organization Search tool on its website to find out if an organization is tax-exempt.

For seniors who are at least 70 ½ years old, you can transfer up to $100,000 directly from a traditional IRA to charity through a Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCD). The charitable donations made by eligible seniors via a QCD aren’t deducible. However, you can still save on taxes, since QCDs aren’t included in taxable income. Charitable giving can benefit the giver, but only if you have taken the time to plan accordingly. If you would like to learn more about charitable giving, please visit our previous posts. 

QCDs also count towards senior’s Required Minimum Distribution, without adding to your adjusted gross income.

Reference: Kiplinger (Nov. 28, 2022) “Charitable Donation Tax Deductions: An Additional Reward for the Gift of Giving”

 

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Unified Tax Credit is Central to Estate Planning

Unified Tax Credit is Central to Estate Planning

Most people know they pay taxes on earnings and when money grows. However, there are also taxes when money or other assets are given away or passed to another after death. The unified tax credit is central to estate planning, says a recent article titled “What Are The Unified Credit’s Gift Tax Exclusions?” from yahoo!.

First, what is the Unified Tax Credit? Sometimes called the “unified transfer tax,” the unified tax credit combines two separate lifetime tax exemptions. The first is the gift tax exclusion, which concerns assets given to other individuals during your lifetime. The other is the estate tax exemption, which is the value of an estate not subject to taxes when it is inherited. Your estate or heirs will only pay taxes on the portion of assets exceeding this threshold.

The unified tax credit is an exemption applied both to taxable gifts given during your lifetime and the estate you plan to leave to others.

If you would rather gift with warm hands while living, you can pull from this unified credit and avoid paying additional taxes on monetary gifts in the year you gave them. However, if you’d rather keep your assets and distribute them after death, you can save the unified credit for after death. You can also use the unified tax credit to do a little of both.

The unified tax credit changes regularly, depending on estate and gift tax regulations. The gift and estate tax exemptions doubled in 2017, so the unified credit right now sits at $12.06 million per person in 2022. This will expire at the end of 2025, when credits will drop down to lower levels, unless new legislation passes.

Up to 2025, a married couple can give away as much as $24.12 million without having to pay additional taxes. The recipient of this generous gift would not have to pay additional taxes either. If you consider the rate of estate taxes—40%—optimizing this unified tax credit means a lot more money stays in your loved one’s pockets.

How does it work? Let’s say you have four children and each one is going to receive a taxable gift of $500,000. You can pull from your unified tax credit the same year you give these gifts. This way, there’s no need for you to pay gift taxes on the $2 million.

However, this generosity will reduce your lifetime unified credit from $12.06 million to $10.06 million. If you die and leave an estate worth $11.5 million, your heirs will need to pay estate taxes on the $1.44 million difference.

At current estate tax rates, roughly $700,000 would go to the IRS, or more, depending upon your state!

The unified tax credit doesn’t take into account or apply to annual gift exclusions. These annual exclusions allow you to give away even more money during your lifetime and it doesn’t count against your unified limit. As of 2022, taxpayers may give $16,000 per year to any individual as a tax-exempt gift. You can give $16,000 to as many people as you wish each year without being subject to gift taxes. This is a simple way to gift with warm hands without paying gift taxes or reducing the unified limit. The annual gift is per person, so if you are married, you and your spouse may give, $32,000 per year to as many people as you want and the gift is excluded.

Taxable gifts exceeding the annual gift exclusion amount must be properly documented and should be done in concert with your overall estate plan. They offer great tax advantages, and perhaps more importantly, provide the giver with the joy of seeing their wealth translate into a better life for their loved ones. The unified tax credit is central to estate planning so make the time to discuss your options with your estate planning attorney. If you are interested in learning more about tax planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: yahoo! (Nov. 18, 2022) “What Are The Unified Credit’s Gift Tax Exclusions?”

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Information in our blogs is very general in nature and should not be acted upon without first consulting with an attorney. Please feel free to contact Texas Trust Law to schedule a complimentary consultation.
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