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Category: Gift Tax

time to consider business succession planning

Time to Consider Business Succession Planning

The importance of the family business in the U.S. can’t be overstated. Neither can the problems that occur as a direct result of a failure to plan for succession. Owners of a family business need to take the time to consider business succession planning. Business succession planning is the development of a plan for determining when an owner will retire, what position in the company they will hold when they retire, who the eventual owners of the company will be and under what rules the new owners will operate, instructs a recent article, “Succession planning for family businesses” from The Times Reporter. An estate planning attorney plays a pivotal role in creating the plan, as the sale of the business will be a major factor in the family’s wealth and legacy.

  • Start by determining who will buy the business. Will it be a long-standing employee, partners, or family members?
  • Next, develop an advisory team of internal employees, your estate planning attorney, CPA, financial advisor and insurance agent.
  • Have a financial evaluation of the business prepared by a qualified and accredited valuation professional.
  • Consider taxes (income, estate and gift taxes) and income requirements to sustain the owner’s current lifestyle, if the business is being sold outright.
  • Review estate planning strategies to reduce income and estate tax liabilities.
  • Examine the financial impact of the sale on the family member, if a non-family member buys the business.
  • Develop the structure of the sale.
  • Create a timeline for your business succession plan.
  • Get started on all of the legal and financial documents.
  • Meet with the family and/or the new owner on a regular basis to ensure a smooth transition.

Selling a business to the next generation or a new owner is an emotional decision, which is at the heart of most business owner’s utter failure to create a business succession plan. The sale forces them to confront the end of their role in the business, which they likely consider their life’s work. It also requires making decisions that involve family members that may be painful to confront.

The alternative is far worse for all concerned. If there is no plan, chances are the business will not survive. Without leadership and a clear path to the future, the owner may witness the destruction of their life’s work and a squandered legacy.

Take the time to consider business succession planning. Speak with your estate planning attorney and your accountant, who will have had experience helping business owners create and execute a succession plan. Talking about such a plan with family members can often create an emotional response. Working with professionals who benefit from a lack of emotional connection to the business will help the process be less about feelings and more about business. If you would like to learn more about estate planning for business owners, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: The Times Reporter (March 7, 2021) “Succession planning for family businesses”

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selling a home after the death of a parent

You have Options when Inheriting a House

You have options when inheriting a house. If you inherit a house, there are tax and financial issues. Yahoo Finance’s recent article from (December 21, 2020) entitled “What to Do When You Inherit a House” gives us some topics to keep in mind.

Inheritance and Estate Taxes. Inheriting a house doesn’t usually mean any taxes because there’s no federal inheritance tax. But some larger estates may have to pay federal estate taxes. There are also six states that have an inheritance tax: Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The spouse is exempt from paying inheritance tax, and children and grandchildren are exempt from inheritance tax in four states (not PA or NE).

Capital Gains Taxes. This may be a concern if the heir decides to sell the house. Capital gains taxes are federal taxes on the profits on the sale of assets. Short-term capital gains taxes apply on sale of assets owned for a year or less, and long-term capital gains taxes are for the sale of assets owned for longer. However, when a house is transferred by inheritance, the value of the house is stepped up to its fair market value at the time it was transferred, so that a home purchased many years ago is valued at current market value for capital gains.

Exclusion. Also, if the heir occupies the home as his or her primary residence for at least two out of five years, the IRS may grant an exclusion of up to $500,000 on capital gains taxes for a couple filing jointly or $250,000 for a single filer.

Mortgage. If the home has a mortgage, there will be monthly payments to make.

Reverse Mortgage. If there is a reverse mortgage, a type of home loan available to seniors age 62 and older, the ownership of the home will transfer to the mortgage company when the owner dies.

Short Sale. If the house is underwater, with a mortgage balance more than the home’s value, the new owners may ask the lender to do a short sale, selling the property for less than the loan balance and accepting that amount to settle the debt.

Other Expenses. If the home is paid off, there still could be major repairs to be made before it can be sold or occupied. There are also ongoing costs for property taxes, utilities, residential insurance and maintenance costs, as well as possible home owner association fees.

The Heir’s Options. Three options when a home is inherited are for the heir to occupy it, sell, or rent it. Occupying the home means it will stay in the family, which can be nice if there are memories connected with the property. If there is no mortgage, this can also be an economical option. Selling it provides cash if it’s worth more than the mortgage after any necessary repairs. This is a quick and easy way to make the most of a home inheritance without adding any future risks. Finally, renting it can provide passive income and some tax advantages. However, being a landlord involves costs and dealing with tenants can require a lot of time and attention.

Emotional and Relationship Issues. Inheriting a home that’s been in the family for decades can bring up a lot of feelings for the heirs. If multiple heirs were each bequeathed part ownership, it can be difficult to determine what everyone wants and choose a mutually acceptable course of action.

Heirs can ask for the help of an experienced estate planning attorney to facilitate discussions and to make sure that everyone understands the agreement.

You have options when inheriting a house. There are tax, financial and emotional considerations, and a lot is dependent on the size of the mortgage, the home’s value and the costs of upkeep.

If you are interested in learning more about protecting the family home, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Dec. 21, 2020) “What to Do When You Inherit a House”

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the stretch IRA is not completely gone

Donor Advised Fund is a Win-Win for All Concerned

Many Americans are feeling charitable these days, and with good reasons. It’s a hard time for many, and if you are financially able, making donations may help you feel you are making a difference for others during uncertain times. There are many options when making donations, and the recent article “Choosing Charity: How Donor-Advised Funds Benefit Your Contributions” from Fort Worth Magazine explains your choices. A Donor Advised Fund is a win-win situation for all concerned.

Donor Advised Funds (DAFs) can be opened for varying amounts, that are set by the sponsoring organizations. Smaller community foundations would welcome a DAF for $5,000, for instance. DAFs can be funded with cash or other assets, but once the donation is made, the asset no longer belongs to you. However, you may be able to decide when donations are distributed, and which charities receive funding. There are no required distribution dates, so the funds could go unused for a long time, while you receive the tax write-off right away.

You may also determine the investments within the fund, level of risk and overall investment strategy.

Another good reason to use DAFs: the sponsoring organization becomes the donor of record. Therefore, DAFs are an excellent way to make anonymous contributions.

There are also DAFs that involve active involvement from an advisor, if that is of value to you.

Why is now a great time to use a Donor-Advised Fund?

Some investors have highly appreciated assets that could lead to a significant tax liability, if they were sold right now. DAF offers an alternative—rather than sell the assets and pay taxes, putting them into a DAF can achieve the following:

  • You receive a tax deduction,
  • There are no capital gains taxes, and
  • Your chosen the charity that fully benefits from the funds.

The pandemic has left many people facing uncertainty. Therefore, now isn’t the right time for everyone to open their wallets and a DAF. However, if you are charitably-minded and in a financial position to benefit, a Donor Advised Fund is a win-win for all concerned. If you would like to learn more about charitable giving, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Fort Worth Magazine (Feb. 3, 2021) “Choosing Charity: How Donor-Advised Funds Benefit Your Contributions”

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It is important to talk to your children about your estate planning

The Generation-Skipping Tax Can Make A Big Impact

The generation-skipping tax can make a big impact on the assets you’re able to leave to heirs. The generation-skipping transfer tax, also called the generation-skipping tax, can apply when a grandparent leaves assets to a grandchild—skipping over their parents in the line of inheritance. It can also be triggered, when leaving assets to someone who’s at least 37½ years younger than you. If you are thinking about “skipping” any of your heirs when passing on assets, it is important to know what that may mean tax-wise and how to fill out the requisite form. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you and counsel you on the best way to pass along your estate to your beneficiaries.

KAKE.com’s recent article entitled “What Is the Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax?” says the tax code imposes both gift and estate taxes on transfers of assets above certain limits. For 2020, you can exclude gifts of up to $15,000 per person from the gift tax, with the limit twice as much for married couples who file a joint return. Estate tax applies to estates larger than $11,580,000 for 2020, increased to $11,700,000 in 2021.

The gift tax rate can be as high as 40%, and the estate tax is also 40% at the top end. The IRS uses the generation-skipping transfer tax to collect its portion of any wealth that is transferred across families, when not passed directly from parent to child. Assets subject to the generation-skipping tax are taxed at a flat 40% rate.

Note that the GSTT can apply to both direct transfers of assets to your beneficiaries and to assets passing through a trust. A trust can be subject to the GSTT, if all trust beneficiaries are considered to be skip persons who have a direct interest in the trust.

The generation-skipping tax is a separate tax from the estate tax, but it applies alongside it. Similar to the estate tax, this tax begins when an estate’s value exceeds the annual exemption limits. The 40% GSTT would be applied to any transfers of assets above the exempt amount, in addition to the regular 40% estate tax.

That is the way the IRS gets its money on wealth, as it moves from one person to another. If you passed your estate to your child, who then passes it to their child then no GSTT would apply. The IRS would just collect estate taxes from each successive generation. However, if you skip your child and leave assets to your grandchild, it eliminates a link from the taxation chain, and the GSTT lets the IRS replace that link.

You can use your lifetime estate and gift tax exemption limits, which can help to offset how much is owed for the generation-skipping tax. However, any unused portion of the exemption counted toward the generation-skipping tax is lost when you pass away.

If you’d like to minimize estate and gift taxes as much as possible, there are several options. Your experienced estate planning attorney might suggest giving assets to your grandchildren or another generation-skipping person annually, rather than at the end of your life. That’s because you can give up to $15,000 per person each year without incurring gift tax, or up to $30,000 per person if you’re married and file a joint return. Just keep the lifetime exemption limits in mind when planning gifts.

You could also make payments on behalf of a beneficiary to avoid tax. For instance, to help your granddaughter with college costs, any direct payments you make to the school to cover tuition would generally be tax-free. The same is true for direct payments made to healthcare providers, if you’re paying medical expenses on behalf of another.

Another option may be a generation-skipping trust that lets you transfer assets to the trust and pay estate taxes at the time of the transfer. The assets you put into the trust must stay there during the skipped generation’s lifetime. Once they die, the trust assets can be passed on tax-free to the next generation.

There’s also a dynasty trust. This trust can let you pass assets to future generations without triggering estate, gift, or generation-skipping taxes. However, they are meant to be long-term trusts. You can name your children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and subsequent generations as beneficiaries and the transfer of assets to the trust is irrevocable. Therefore, when you place the assets in the trust, you will not be able to take them back out again. You can see why it’s so important to understand the implications, before creating this type of trust.

The generation-skipping tax can make a big impact on the assets you’re able to leave to heirs. If you’re considering using this type of trust to pass on assets or you’re interested in exploring other ways to transfer assets while minimizing taxes, speak to an experienced estate planning attorney. If you would like to learn more about GSTT and other estate tax issues, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: KAKE.com (Feb. 6, 2021) “What Is the Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax?”

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charitable contribution deductions from an estate

Creating a Successful Business Exit Plan

Motley Fool’s recent article titled “What Robert Redford’s Sale of Sundance Can Teach Investors About Exit Planning” says that, in announcing the sale, Redford told the Salt Lake Tribune that he’s been thinking of selling for several years. However, he wanted to find the right partners. Broadreach and Cedar plan to upgrade the resort, add hotel rooms and build a new inn. The companies have also said that they will keep the resort sustainable and practicing measured growth, as well as also continuing to host the Sundance Film Festival. So how did he set about creating a successful business exit plan?

The 2,600-acre resort has 1,845 acres of land saved from future development through a conservation easement and protective covenants. The 84-year-old actor has had a lifelong interest in the environment and in land stewardship. Redford and his family have also arranged with Utah Open Lands to create the Redford Family Elk Meadows Preserve at the base of Mt. Timpanogos. The gift will reduce Redford’s tax liability on his estate.

Both Broadreach and Cedar have extensive hospitality experience, but neither looks to have much ski resort experience. However, they’re working with Bill Jensen, an industry legend, who recently left his role as CEO of Telluride Ski and Golf Resort in Colorado.

Creating a successful business exit plan can be difficult—in part, because people don’t like to address such unwelcome topics. Most investors don’t have the luxury of waiting years to find the right buyer, but the Redford deal does show that planning ahead may be critical to creating a mechanism that supports the vision for the property.

When selling a large investment property, you must first understand why you’re selling, and your desired end result. Of course, a return on investment is nice, but there may be other considerations, like in Redford’s case. Another key is ascertaining the updated worth of what you’re selling. Get a valuation, especially with an irreplaceable asset.

The structure of the sale is important. You will likely be liable for tax on your capital gains, so ask an attorney. If you’re also structuring your estate plans at the same time, you’ll need to know what amount you can give and what your heirs may have to pay. Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney before you begin creating a business exit plan to be certain that you’re covering all the bases.

If you are interested in learning more about succession planning and other business related planning topics, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Motley Fool (Dec. 12, 2020) “What Robert Redford’s Sale of Sundance Can Teach Investors About Exit Planning”

 

charitable contribution deductions from an estate

Should a GRAT Be Part of Your Estate Plan?

A Grantor-Retained Annuity Trust, or GRAT, is funded by the grantor, the person who creates the trust, in exchange for a stream of annuity payments at a predetermined interest rate—the IRS Section 7520 rate. The interest rate in December 2020 is 0.6%, as reported in the article “Transferring Wealth With This Trust Can Yield Big Tax Advantages” from Financial Advisor. Should a GRAT be part of your estate plan?

GRAT assets need only appreciate greater than the Section 7520 rate over the term of the trust, and any excess earnings will pass to beneficiaries, or to an ongoing trust for beneficiaries with no gift or estate tax.

Because the grantor takes back the amount equal to that which was transferred to the trust (often two or three years), which is set by the IRS when the trust is funded, future appreciation over and above the interest rate passes gift-tax free.

There’s little upkeep. Once the trust agreement is in place, a gift tax return needs to be filed once a year. If the trust is set up without a tax ID number, there’s no need to file an income tax return.

The grantor is responsible for the income generated by the asset in the GRAT, but that’s it. If the value of the property is increased following an audit, the gift won’t be increased but the annuity will. If the GRAT property decreases in value, the only out of pocket is the set-up costs.

Assets in a GRAT may be anything from an investment portfolio to shares in a closely held business.

Most GRATs are designed to have the value of the retained annuity be equal to the value of the property that is transferred to the GRAT. If the values are equal, then the amount of the gift for tax purposes is zero, since the value of the transfer less the annuity value is zero.

GRATs are not for everyone. The success of the GRAT depends upon the success of the underlying assets. If they don’t appreciate as expected, then there might not be a significant amount transferred out of the estate after paying for the legal, accounting and appraisal fees. If the grantor dies during the term of the GRAT before payments back to the grantor have ended, the GRAT will be unsuccessful.

Generation skipping transfers cannot utilize GRATS, since the generation skipping tax exemption may not be applied to a GRAT, until the grantor’s death.

Ask your estate planning attorney about whether a GRAT should be a part of your estate plan. If a GRAT is not a good fit, they will know about many other tools available.

If you would like to learn more about how GRATS can play a role in your estate planning, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Financial Advisor (Nov. 30, 2020) “Transferring Wealth With This Trust Can Yield Big Tax Advantages”

 

charitable contribution deductions from an estate

Implementing Succession Plans Before Year Ends

Anyone with a taxable estate that includes an operating business should be looking into the efficacy of making gifts in 2020 to take advantage of a unique set of circumstances, advises the article “Why Now is the Right Time to Execute Succession Plans” from Worth. This could include implementing succession plans before the year ends.

The federal exemption from transfer taxes is at a historically high level. Individuals may transfer up to $11.58 million of assets during their lifetime without incurring federal gift, estate or generation skipping transfer tax (GST). The current maximum federal gift and estate tax rate and the current maximum federal GST tax rate is now 40 percent. As the law stands now, this amount is not scheduled to be reduced until the end of 2025, but whether that will remain is anyone’s guess.

The IRS has stated that it will not attempt a claw back of taxes if the exemption amount decreases soon, so taxpayers who put off taking action before December 31, 2020 will miss out.

Lower Value Another Incentive to Develop a Succession Plan

It is important not forget the impact of the global pandemic. Valuations in some parts of public markets continue to be high, but many private companies have lost a lot of value. The lower appraised values can be beneficial for succession planning. If a business owner is willing to transfer all or a portion of the private company to successive generations now, that lowered appraisal value means that more wealth can be shifted. There is the possibility of growth in the future, free of gift, estate, or GST tax.

How Do Interest Rates Impact Succession Plans?

Many strategies used to transfer assets between generations are based on interest rates which are near the lowest they have ever been. Every month, the IRS releases the updated Section 7520 and Applicable Federal Rates (AFR). These are the rates used for transfer techniques like GRATs and intra-family loans. In October, the 7520 rate was 40 basis points (“bps”), and the Mid-Term Annual AFR, used for loans with terms of three to nine years was 39 bps.

Succession Plans Take Time to Create

This unique combination of exemptions, low business valuations and low interest rates is likely to lead many business owners to their estate planning attorney’s offices to implement succession plans before the calendar years ends. The smart move is to contact your estate planning attorney, CPA, and financial advisor as soon as possible to discuss options, and get succession plans going. There will likely be a more-than-usual last minute rush to complete many financial and legal tasks this December, and getting started as early as possible will make it more likely that your succession plan can be completed before December 31, 2020.

If you would like to learn more about gifting, and other means of reducing estate taxes, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Worth (Nov. 2, 2020) “Why Now is the Right Time to Execute Succession Plans”

 

 

charitable contribution deductions from an estate

Creating a GRIT Could Have Some Benefits

Creating a GRIT (grantor retained income trust) could have some benefits, particularly if you’re seeking for ways to minimize taxes in your estate plan. A GRIT is a type of irrevocable trust. This means that the transfer of assets is permanent and can’t be reversed.

Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “What Is a Grantor Retained Income Trust (GRIT)?” explains that a grantor retained income trust lets the person who creates the trust transfer assets to it, while still being able to receive net income from trust assets. The grantor keeps this right for a set number of years.

By creating a GRIT, the grantor (or creator of the trust) has the right to receive net income from the assets held in the trust. The trustee distributes income to the grantor, according to the trust terms. After the initial term during which the grantor is eligible to receive income from the trust expires, one of two things can happen. The remaining assets in the trust can be distributed to its beneficiaries. If you don’t want the assets to pass on to beneficiaries immediately, you can set it up so the assets continue to be held in trust.

However, unlike other types of trusts, there are rules on who can get a transfer of GRIT assets. Specifically, there are certain people who can’t be named as a beneficiary to a GRIT, including your spouse, your parents or spouse’s parents, your children or spouse’s children, or your siblings or spouse’s siblings (or their spouses).

However, you can designate the children of your siblings or other distant relatives as the beneficiary to a GRIT.

A GRIT is typically used for one specific purpose, which is to minimize taxes in estate planning. Keeping estate taxes as low as possible results in additional assets to pass on to your beneficiaries when you pass away.

When assets are transferred to a GRIT, they’re valued at a discount. This is based upon on the number of years for which you plan to draw income from the trust as the grantor, and the principal value of assets included in the trust are excluded from your estate for estate and gift tax purposes. However, you’ll be taxed on the income you receive from a GRIT during the initial term. It’s taxed at your ordinary income tax rate. It’s important to know about creating a GRIT for the benefit of minimizing estate taxes, that you must outlive the initial term. If you die during the period when you’re still receiving income from the trust assets, no estate or gift tax benefit would pass on to your beneficiaries.

A grantor retained income trusts can serve a specialized objective as part of your estate plan. However, whether you need one can depend on a variety of factors, so speak with an experienced estate planning attorney about the specifics of a GRIT.

If you would like to learn more about GRITs and other types of trusts, please visit our previous posts. 

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Oct. 23, 2020) “What Is a Grantor Retained Income Trust (GRIT)?”

 

charitable contribution deductions from an estate

Federal Estate Tax Exemption is set to Sunset

In 2018, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) doubled the lifetime gift, estate and generation-skipping tax exemption to $11.18 million from $5.6 million. With adjustments for inflation, that exemption in 2020 is $11.58 million, the highest it’s ever been, reports the article “Federal Estate Tax Exemption Is Set to Expire—Are You Prepared?” from Kiplinger. However, this won’t last forever. There’s a limited time to this historically high exemption. The window for planning may be closing soon. The federal estate tax exemption is set to sunset at the end of 2025, but the impact of a global pandemic and the presidential election will likely accelerate the rollback.

As of this writing, many states have already eliminated their state estate taxes, although 17 states and the District of Columbia still have them. The estate planning environment has changed greatly over the last decade. However, for families with large assets, and for those whose assets may reach Biden’s proposed and far lower estate tax exemption, the time to plan is now.

Gifting Assets Now to Reduce Estate Taxes. The IRS has stated that there will be no claw back on lifetime gifts, so any gifts made under the current exemption will not be subject to estate taxes in the future, even if the exemption is reduced.

Keep in mind that when gifting assets, to make a gift complete for estate tax purposes, you must relinquish ownership, control and use of the assets. If that is a concern, married couples can use the Spousal Lifetime Access Trust or SLAT option: an irrevocable trust created by one spouse for the benefit of the other. Just be mindful when funding irrevocable trusts of gifting any low cost-basis assets. If the trust holds assets that appreciate while in the trust for extended periods of time, beneficiaries could be hit with tax burdens.

Take Advantage of Lower Valuations and Low Interest Rates. The value of many securities and businesses have been impacted by the pandemic, which could make this a good time to consider gifting or transferring assets out of your estate. Lower valuations allow a greater portion of assets to be transferred out of the estate, thereby reducing the size of the estate tax.

With interest rates at historical lows, intra-family loans may be an effective wealth-transfer strategy, letting family members make loans to each other without triggering gift taxes. Intra-family loans use the IRS’ Applicable Federal Rate–now at a record low of between 0.14%-1.12%, depending upon the length of the loan. These loans work best when borrowed funds are invested and the rate of return earned on the invested loan proceeds exceeds the loan interest rate.

Avoid Last-Minute Rush by Starting Now. This type of estate planning takes time. The more time you have to plan with your estate planning attorney, the less likely you are to run into challenges and hurdles that can waste valuable time. When estate tax laws change, estate planning attorneys get busy. Creating a thoughtful plan now may also help prevent mistakes, including triggering the reciprocal trust doctrine or the step transaction doctrine. Planning for asset protection and distribution allows families to control how assets are distributed for many generations and to create a lasting legacy. Take the time to consider your planning before federal estate tax exemption is set to sunset.

If you would like to learn more about exemptions and gifting, please visit our previous posts.

Reference: Kiplinger (Oct. 14, 2020) “Federal Estate Tax Exemption Is Set to Expire—Are You Prepared?”

 

charitable contribution deductions from an estate

How Do I Keep Money in the Family?

That seems like an awfully large amount of money. You might think only the super wealthy need to worry about estate planning, but you’d be wrong to think planning is only necessary for the 1%. So how do I keep money in the family?

US News and World Report’s recent article entitled “5 Estate Planning Tips to Keep Your Money in the Family” reminds us that estate taxes may be only part of it. In many cases, there are income tax ramifications.

Your heirs may have to pay federal income taxes on retirement accounts. Some states also have their own estate taxes. You also want to make certain that your assets are transferred to the right people. Speaking with an experienced estate planning attorney is the best way to sort through complex issues surrounding estate planning. When trying to keep money in the family, here are some things you should cover:

Create a Will. This is a basic first step. However, 68% of Americans don’t take it. Many of those who don’t have a will (about a third) say it’s because they don’t have enough assets to make it worthwhile. This is not true. Without a will, your estate is governed by state law and will be divided in probate court. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney to help you draft a will.  You should also review it on a regular basis because laws and family situations can change.

Review Your Beneficiaries. Perhaps the simplest way to keep money in the family. There are specific types of accounts, like retirement funds and life insurance in which the owners designate the beneficiaries, rather than this asset passing via the will. The named beneficiaries will also supersede any directions for the accounts in your will. Like your will, review your account beneficiaries after any major life change.

Consider a Trust. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about a trust for possible tax benefits and the ability to control when a beneficiary gets their money (after they graduate college or only for a first home, for example). If money is put in an irrevocable trust, the assets no longer belong to you. Instead, they belong to the trust. That money can’t be subject to estate taxes. In addition, a trust isn’t subject to probate, which keeps it private.

Convert to Roth’s. If you have a traditional 401(k) or IRA account, it will help keep money in the family, but it might unintentionally create a hefty tax bill for your heirs. When your children inherit an IRA, they inherit the income tax liability that goes with it. Regular income tax must be paid on distributions from all traditional retirement accounts. In the past, non-spousal heirs, such as children could “stretch” those distributions over their lifetime to reduce the total amount of taxes due. However, now the account must be completely liquidated within 10 years after the death of the owner. If the account balance is substantial, it could necessitate major distributions that may be taxed at a higher rate. To avoid leaving beneficiaries with a large tax bill, you can gradually convert traditional accounts to Roth accounts that have tax-free distributions. The amount converted will be taxable on your income taxes, so the objective is to limit each year’s conversion, so it doesn’t move you into a higher tax bracket.

Make Gifts While You’re Alive. A great way to make certain that your money stays in the family, is to just give it to your heirs while you’re alive. The IRS allows individuals to give up to $15,000 per person per year in gifts. If you’re concerned about your estate being taxable, these gifts can decrease its value, and the money is tax-free for recipients.

Charitable Donations. You can also reduce your estate value, by making charitable donations. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about setting up a donor-advised fund, instead of making a one-time gift. This would give you an immediate tax deduction for money deposited in the fund and then let you make charitable grants over time. You could designate a child or grandchild as a successor in managing the fund.

Complicated strategies and a constantly changing tax code can make keeping money in the family feel intimidating. However, ignoring estate planning can be a costly mistake for your heirs. Talk to an estate planning attorney. If you would like to learn more about estate tax planning, please visit our previous posts.

Reference:  US News and World Report (Sep. 30, 2020) “5 Estate Planning Tips to Keep Your Money in the Family”